Chinese Characters – Regular scripts

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The regular script, font name, also called regular script, block script, true script, and regular script. The official script gradually evolved, become more simplified, smooth vertical and horizontal. The book ” Ci Hai ” explains that it “has a square shape and straight strokes, which can be used as a model.” This Chinese character font correct, it is the modern prevailing Chinese character handwriting block letter word.

 

The regular script is also an official name. “Xin Tang Book · Hundred Officials II” Book Zhongshu Provincial History Museum has 20 regular scriptwriters and 18 regular scriptwriters. As an official name, the regular script is also called the regular script hand. The things written by the palms are juxtaposed in the same organization, due to different divisions of labor. ” Tong Dian · Official Twenty-two” remembers the regular script hand as the streamed official. In Song Dynasty, there was no such name as a regular script, but a regular script.

Regular script China

 

Basic Information

The regular script is also called block script, true script, and regular script. From Cheng Miao founded the official script gradually evolved, become more simplified, smooth vertical and horizontal. “Chai” explained that it “has a square shape and straight strokes, which can be used as a model.” Hence the name regular script. It started at the end of the Han Dynasty and passed to modern times, and it is prosperous.

 

Produce regular script, closely linked to the Han Li rules testimonies, and the pursuit of the physical beauty of further development, Han Dynasty, the Three Kingdoms period, writing Chinese characters gradually become a wave, spine and is skimming, Na, and have a “side” ( point ), “sweep”(long prime ),” pecking “(short prime ),” put “( straight hook ) or the like stroke, so that the structure becomes more rigorous. Such as “Wuwei Medical Slips”, “Juan Han Slips” and so on. The characteristic of the regular script is that it is neat and tidy, and it is a model in fonts, so it is called regular script and has been used until modern times.

 

The regular script has the meaning of a model, which has been first mentioned in Zhang Huai-wan’s ” Book Break “. Six people are still accustomed to using it, such as sheep Xin ” mining ” Wen, Wang Sengqian ” book on the Wei Chuan gave birth,” Cloud: “The birth Zizhong, Jingzhao people, good script” that was “eight The abbreviation for “kaifa”. It wasn’t until the Northern Song Dynasty that it replaced the name of the original book. Its content is obviously different from the ancient name. There are probably the above examples of the same name and the same name.

 

The regular script is the most popular type of script in our feudal society from the Southern and Northern Wei to the Jin and Tang Dynasties. Before regular script came into being, China’s calligraphy had produced three script styles: Da Zhuan, Xiao Zhuan, and Li Shu. Dazhuan is relative to Xiaozhuan. Generally, all the ancient characters before Xiaozhuan are collectively called Dazhuan, including oracle bone inscriptions, bronze inscriptions, and the characters of the Six Kingdoms except Qin during the Warring States period. Xiaozhuan is the common script after Qin unified China. It is based on the script of Qin, referring to the scripts of other vassals. It is the first standardized script in the history of Chinese calligraphy.

 

The official script is another representative script that appeared after Xiaozhuan. It was produced on the basis of Xiaozhuan. The emergence of the official script is a great revolution of Chinese characters. Its significance is not only that Chinese characters have become symbolic since then, but more importantly, it has changed the way of writing and aesthetic trends of Chinese characters, thus laying the foundation for the production of regular script calligraphy, and further, for China, The development and prosperity of calligraphy art opened up a vast world. However, Li Zhimin, a professor at Peking University and the founder of the introduction of the stele to the grass, believed that Qin Shihuang’s unification of the six languages ​​had positive significance for the social progress at that time, but it was not necessarily conducive to the development of calligraphy.

 

Therefore, in the calligraphy field of the Qin and Han Dynasties, the regular script (called the official script at that time, which assisted the small seal, writing faster) directly gave birth to the calligraphy art. Following its rules, the development history of the regular script in China is divided into four periods: the budding period of regular script-Qin and Han, the development period of regular script-Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern Dynasties, the prosperous period of regular script-Sui, Tang, and the Five Dynasties, and the regular script conservancy period ——Song, Yuan, Ming, and Qing.

 

Song Xuanhe’s Book Genealogy: “Those who had Wang Cizhong in the early Han Dynasty began to use official characters as a regular script.” The regular script here actually refers to the eight-point script created by Wang Cizhong, not the modern so-called regular script. According to another rumor: “On the tomb of Confucius, a regular tree planted by Zigong, the branches are straight and not buckled.” The strokes of the regular script are simple and straightforward and must be like the branches of a regular tree.

basic information

 

Evolution

Nowadays, the commonly referred to as regular script gradually evolved from Han Li. According to the period, it can be divided into Wei Bei and Tang Kai. The Wei stele refers to the calligraphy of the Wei, Jin, and Southern and Northern Dynasties. It can be said to be a transitional script from official script to regular script. Zhong Zhishuai’s Xuexuan Shupin said: “Wei stele calligraphy can be seen in the Han and Qin ancient styles. I can observe the customs of the Sui and Tang Dynasties.”Wei stele often contains the official script of the Han Dynasty in it, so its regular script is not mature yet, but because of this immaturity, it also creates a scene of a hundred flowers blooming with a strange attitude. , Formed a unique beauty, Kang Youwei commented on “Weibei Ten Beauties”. In the narrow sense, the regular script refers to Tang Kai, which gradually matured after the Tang Dynasty. Its representatives include Ouyangxun, Yu Shinan, Chu Suiliang, and Xue Ji in the early Tang Dynasty, Yan Zhenqing in the Middle Tang Dynasty, and Liu Gongquan in the late Tang Dynasty. The four masters of the regular script that we often call “Yan Liu Ou Zhao”, the first three were in the Tang Dynasty.

 

By the end of the Tang Dynasty, the regular script had developed to its peak, and the style had been too regular, so it gradually declined. However, “the book of the Tang emphasizes the law, and the book of the Song emphasizes the meaning.” Su Shi of the Song Dynasty created the plump and innocent “Su style ” with his poetic demeanor, which can be called “the first in the Song Dynasty”. At the end of the Song Dynasty and the beginning of the Yuan Dynasty, Zhao Mengfu formed the “Zhao style” with its gentleness and smoothness, that is, the “Zhao” of the four great masters. However, the “Zhao style ” should belong to Xingkai strictly speaking, and no longer be a rule. It is a regular script, so beginners generally choose one of the three types of “Yan Liuou”, which is also recognized as the right way to learn. Below I will compare these three bodies from multiple perspectives, some of which also refer to Wei Bei and Zhao Ti, in order to fully understand the regular script individuals. More focused on comparing the style and characteristics, “Yan Liu Ou” three-body, affecting both times there, and personal factors, such as the European body formed in the early Tang Dynasty, by Rubbings greater impact; Tang Yan style subject to The influence of the aesthetic point of view of fat is plumper; and Liu’s body, because of Liu Gongquan’s integrity, “people are righteous.”

 

Early

In the initial “Kaisha”, there are still very few official pens, the body is slightly wider, the horizontal drawing is long and the vertical drawing is short. The Wei and Jin posts handed down, such as Zhong Yao’s ” Announcement Table “, ” Jian Ji Zhi Biao “, Wang Xizhi ‘s ” Le Yi Lun “, ” Huang Ting Jing “, etc., can be masterpieces. In view of its characteristics, as Weng Fanggang said: “Change the wave painting of the official script, and peck and pick, and the horizontal and straight of the ancient official will remain.”

 

Wei

After the Eastern Jin Dynasty, the north and the south split, and calligraphy was divided into two schools. The Northern School style, with the legacy of Han Li, the style is old and clumsy, and the style is simple and strict, and it is longer than the list. This is the so-called Wei stele. Southern-style calligraphy is more open and beautiful, longer than a ruler. The Southern and Northern Dynasties had very different personal habits and styles of writing due to regional differences. The Northern Book is strong, and the Southern Book is rich in content, each with its own ingenuity, without distinction. However, Bao Shichen and Kang Youwei strongly praised the books of the two dynasties, especially the Beiwei stele. Kang cited ten beautiful things to emphasize the merits of Wei Bei.

 

Tang

The regular script of the Tang Dynasty, like the prosperity of the Tang Dynasty, is really unprecedented. The script is mature and many calligraphers have appeared. In the regular script, Yu Shinan, Ouyang Xun, Chu Suiliang in the early Tang Dynasty, Yan Zhenqing in the Middle Tang Dynasty, and Liu Gongquan in the late Tang Dynasty. Their regular script works are all emphasized by later generations and regarded as models of calligraphy.

 

There is a saying in the ancients when learning calligraphy: “To learn calligraphy, you must first write the script, and you must first write the big letters. The big characters use the face as the method, the Chinese calligraphy is based on the European method, and the Chinese calligraphy is familiar, and then the lower case is used as the method, and the king of the clock is the method.”. However, according to the results of many years of experimental research, it is shown that for beginners to write, it is not advisable to learn too large characters first. Zhongkai is more suitable.

 

The regular scripts of the three major calligraphers in the early Tang Dynasty, Ouyang Xun, Yu Shinan, and Chu Suiliang, are the most suitable examples for copying in Zhongkai. Here is a brief introduction as follows:

 

Ouyang Xun’s block letters originated from the ancient scribes, based on the two kings, and participated in the style of the Northern School of the Six Dynasties. The structure is unique and unique. His influence penetrates into society and is almost a standard book for learning. Investigating the characteristics of regular script, the pen is strong and sharp, the strokes are square and neat, and the body is bright and healthy. His regular script rubbings representative of “ Jincheng Gong Liquan Ming “, “degree of Temple monument ” monument.

 

Yu Shinan ‘s regular script, graceful and elegant, inherited the legacy of Zen Master Zhiyong and belonged to the royal family. Although it originated from the Wei and Jin Dynasties, it was soft on the outside and strong on the inside, and its serene and serene rhyme swept away the cowardice of the Wei and Jin calligraphy. His representative work in the regular script should be “Confucius Temple Stele” as the most.

Evolution

Chu Suiliang ‘s regular script is known for his thinness and strength training. Although his ancestors are right in the army, he can get its charm. Its font structure seems very unrestrained, but it can subtly harmonize the quiet style, creating a situation that no one has reached before. Its representative work in the regular script should be “The Preface to the Goose Pagoda ” as the best.

 

Generally speaking, writing small characters is quite different from writing large characters. The principle is: writing large characters must be close and seamless, and writing small characters must make it more than lenient. That is to say: writing large characters must be as precise as small characters; while writing small characters must be as cramped as large characters. Therefore, the ancients said that “big characters should be like small characters, and small characters should be like big characters.” Su Dongpo’s book There is a fine line of “big characters are difficult to form dense and seamless, and small characters are difficult to be generous.” How do you say these words? Because when we usually write large characters, we think that the position (area) is broad and can be swayed freely. As a result, the font becomes loose and empty. Writing small characters is just the opposite. Because the space is too small, it is inevitable that you will try to shrink if you are worried that you can’t write, and often shrink too much, but become curled up. This is a natural psychological phenomenon, and it is very easy to break. Therefore, Su Gong’s phrase “It’s hard to be big or small” was made precisely in response to this look, and it is even more experienced.

 

The center of gravity of writing small characters and the coordination of strokes are not much different from those of large characters. As for the strokes, it is slightly different. Small characters should be round, graceful, tall, and neat; large characters should be strong and heavy. When writing large characters, use counter-front ( hidden front ), when closing the pen, use counter-front; when writing small characters, you don’t need to use counter-front. For example, if you write horizontally, the point where the pen starts or the tip is round and the point where the pen is closed; when you write upright, the pen is raised or slightly paused, and the pen is pointed; when the pen is drawn, the pen is raised or fat and thin: the pen is opened or thin and closed Fat, but also slightly curved left and right, the strokes are vivid and affectionate; the point wants to be sharp and round, the pick wants to be sharp and sharp, the band wants to be inside and outside, and the hook is half curved and half straight. The pen is flexible and changeable. Especially in the whole text, the pen and the pen must be different and coordinated. The line of characters is written in a staggered way, but it is always on the same line. If it is, the qi flows naturally, looking like a string of pearl necklaces, and the spirit is flying.

 

Small print is necessary calligraphy for daily use in ancient times. In the past, when taking imperial examinations, most of the people who read the papers read the characters first, and then the articles. If the writing is not good, the article will be affected even if it is good. North Korea test champion, Hanlin, especially focusing on calligraphy. Therefore, the small characters of the champion and Hanlin are all exquisite. Generally speaking, he is also good at writing small print. The hard pen is popular nowadays, and there are not many people who write small characters with brush pens, but using a hard pen to write lower case copybooks can be more effective with less effort. Therefore, if you want to write hard pen characters, you might as well find a good lower case copybook for practice. It will surely lay a solid foundation, benefit for life, and be inexhaustible.

 

There are many copybooks in lower case. Among the handed-down Moto, the reputation of Jin and Tang Xiaokai is the most prominent. Which usually includes the Wei when Zhong Yao’s “declaration quote,” ” recommended season straight table,” Eastern Jin Wang Xizhi ‘s ” Yue on ” ” Cao E monument “, “Huang Ting Jing” young boy ‘s ” Lo River Thirteen,” Tang Zhong Shao Jing of ” “Ling Fei Jing ” and so on. There Yuan Zhao Meng, Ming Wang Chong, Evaluation on and so lower case works of ink photocopy is also very good template.

 

Zhong You’s calligraphy has a simple style, but the handed-down works ” Announcement Table ” and ” Recommended Ji Zhi Biao “, none of which are true, are mostly passed down by posterity or prototype. Appreciating good copy rubbings, you can imagine its quaint style.

 

Song and Yuan

If Han Wei is the initial stage of regular script and Tang is the mature stage of regular script, then Song and Yuan are the extended stages of regular script. The regular calligraphy of the Tang Dynasty is strict and the structure is rigorous. In the Song and Yuan dynasties, calligraphers began to pursue the beauty of the works, some were delicate and handsome, some were graceful and elegant.

 

Qing Dynasty

Qing Dynasty regular script to Shao Ying book “summary of the structure of inter-frame ninety-two law” as the representative, it was four in the early Tang dynasty calligrapher one of Ouyang Xun, “the word thirty knot Six Laws” and the Ming Li Chun ” characters structure method eighty-four “system, based on comprehensive study analyzed character structure rule of combination, summarized the ninety-two kinds of characters guitar body method of writing, and a typical example of each word. “The Ninety-Two Methods of Inter-Frame Structure Summary” is a relatively complete and practical book, which has a great influence on later generations. It is not only suitable for beginners, but also for calligraphy lovers. Ninety-two methods have guiding significance for beginners to understand the structure of the frame, and they are the enlightenment teachers for beginners. “The Ninety-Two Methods of Interframe Structure Summary” was copied and promoted by the famous calligrapher Huang Ziyuan 100 years after it was written. In the late Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China in the early years to reach a household name has a copy, the book’s desk people learn the extent necessary until there is still a wide range of modern influence.

 

Font classification

1 to 3 cm of lower case (small print), more than 5 cm is capitalized (characters), as between the Kai. But this is only a general classification. In fact, small characters less than 1 cm and large characters as large as 1.8 meters are rarely seen in real life.

 

Lower case

Lower case, as the name suggests, it is a small regular script that founded the Three Kingdoms of Wei when Zhong Yao. He was originally an outstanding master of the official script, and the writing of the regular script was also born out of Han Li, and his strokes seemed like a sea of ​​flying colors and vivid. However, the knot body is wide and flat, the horizontal painting is long and the vertical painting is short, and still has the legacy of the division. However, the script is fully prepared, and it is the ancestor of the original book. In the Eastern Jin Dynasty, Wang Xizhi studied the lower-case calligraphy with great care and made it reach the state of perfection. He also established the standard of appreciation for the beautiful Chinese lower-case calligraphy.

 

Capital letters

Under normal circumstances, people call the real books that are more than one inch and less than a few inches square Dakai. The larger characters of the real book are called “Bangs” and “Bangs”. According to ancient calligraphy experience accumulated at home, learning calligraphy should be the first to write capital letters, for basic training. Master the stippling, structure, and whiteness of the stippling in capital letters, and make the stippling accurate and precise, and the structure is dense. If you retreat to writing in small letters, the body can be opened broadly and the stippling rules can be clear, and then the book can be seamless It is bold and grand, and will not be distracted.

Font classification

 

Four italics

The four most famous masters of Kaiti calligraphy are:

 

Tang Ouyangxun

Born in the first year of Yongding, Emperor Wu of the Southern Dynasty (557), died in the fifteenth year of Emperor Taizong of the Tang Dynasty ( 641) in the fifteenth year of Zhenguan, a native of Linxiang, Tanzhou (now Hunan). It is famous for regular script and running script. He is the first regular scriptwriter in the history of calligraphy, and his font is called “Ou Ti”, which goes hand in hand with Yan (Zhenqing), Liu (Gongquan), and Zhao (Meng Fu).

 

Tang Yan Zhenqing

Calligraphy was in its heyday in the Tang Dynasty, where the regular script was called Yu, Ou, Chu, and Yan. Yan Zhenqing is one of the most innovative calligraphers. Yan Zhenqing (709-785), whose name is Qingchen, was born in Jingzhao Wannian (now Xi’an, Shaanxi). He came from a famous family and was the fifth grandson of the famous scholar Yan Shigu. Yen Chen Geng Zhi probity man, known for the strong to justice official, who has four Korean veterans, vicissitudes of official life, did not mind, after the rebellion was ordered to pacify the Huaixi Jiedushi Li Xilie, Lee killed.

 

Yan Zhenqing ‘s calligraphy was learned from his own family, but the person who inspired it to change was Zhang Xu, Wu Jun. Because he can take a hundred schools at one time, he is free to choose, leaving a large number of posts to show his skill. Historian Fan Wenlan always referred to Tang Shu in his writings, saying that “ Yan Zhenqing of the prosperous Tang Dynasty was the creator of the new style of the Tang Dynasty”. Yan’s regular script reflects a prosperous age and grandeur, and his cursive style made Mi Fu in the Song Dynasty also admire the book. The reason is that that calligraphy is often written in a state of extreme grief and indignation. Readers can learn from this article. The taste of it. Love dissolves in art, and talents give birth to the soul. Most outstanding art in history does not violate this criterion.

 

Yan Zhenqing, a giant in the book world. For thousands of years, Weiyan Lugong has been able to compete with the book sage Wang Xizhi, striding forward in the book world. Although the calligraphy circle of the Tang Dynasty was crowned with Yan Zhenqing, the Song Dynasty also named Yan Shu as the crown. In the past, Yan Zhenqing’s book spirit has formed a huge force, and it has accumulated as an important part of the Chinese nation’s book spirit. “New Tangshu·Biography of Yan Zhenqing” praised: “Although it is a thousand and five hundred years old, his heroic words are like the frosty sun, fearful and admired!” The heroic life of the sun and the moon is the reason for the wonderful calligraphy.

 

Tang Liu Gongquan

Liu Gongquan, the thirteenth year of Emperor Zong of the Tang Dynasty (778 AD) -the sixth year of Xiantong of Tang Yizong, namely 865 AD, he was 88 years old. Jing Zhaohua was originally from Yaoxian County, Shaanxi. Palace to little Prince division, pass away, said “Liu less division.” He started learning Wang Xizhi and mastered Ouyangxun and Yan Zhenqing’s brushwork, and then he became a family by himself. Written in regular script, the body is vigorous and strong and strong. Compared with the Yan body, the willow character is slightly thinner, so it is called “Yan Jin Liu Bone”. Mu Zong tried to ask Liu Gongquan about the pen method, and Gongquan replied: “Use the pen in the heart, and the heart is correct.” Mu Gong changed his content as his pen advice. Song Zhu Changwen’s ” Mochi Compilation,” said: “Gongquan official script and Xingkai are the most wonderful products, and they are not capable. The law comes from the face, and it is strong and rich, and he is famous.” He learned Wang Xi’s brushwork and later Reading modern calligraphy all over, I tried my best to change the right military method, learned Yan Zhenqing, and melted his own new ideas so that his characters avoided the posture of thinness and thickness. Instead, he took the balance and thinness, chasing the Wei stele. Strong and tight, many scholars in later generations took Liu Zi as a model.

 

He was a senior scholar at the age of 29 and worked as a low-level official in the local area. Later, he was accidentally seen by Tang Muzong ‘s handwriting. He was called to Chang’an by the imperial court. At that time, Liu Gongquan was more than 40 years old. His character is both spine and meticulous, and in the same way, his words also reveal his characteristics. Because of this, his reputation and status in Chang’an have been improved, and most princes and nobles rushed to invite him at all costs.

 

The calligraphy of the late Tang Dynasty experienced the prosperous mid-Tang Dynasty and declined. Although Liu Gongquan was called a temporary rejuvenation, it was still slightly superior to Yan Shu. Calligraphy flourished for a while in the Tang Dynasty, but it has since declined. Liu Gongquan’s regular script incorporates Ouyang Xun’s brushwork, often interspersing part of the strokes closely, making the generous areas particularly wide, with fine strokes and sharp edges and corners. Although the brushes are from Yan Zhenqing, they are different from Yan Zhenqing’s vigorous and broad strokes and are particularly heroic people.

 

Liu Gongquan served a total of seven emperors and finally gave his official post as the prince Taibao [7]. In 865 (the sixth year of Xiantong), Liu Gongquan died at the age of eighty-eight, and he was given the crown prince.

 

Yuan Zhao Mengfu

Zhao Mengfu (1254-1322) is named Ziang, named Taoist Cedar, and Taoist Crystal Palace, from Huzhou (Wuxing, Zhejiang). From the office to the Hanlin bachelor’s degree, Ronglu doctor, named Wei Guogong, posthumous post title Wenmin. Author of ” Songxuezhai Collection “. Zhao Mengfu was an influential calligrapher in the early Yuan Dynasty. “The History of the Yuan Dynasty” preached, “Meng Fu Zhuan’an is divided into Li’s literary and virtuosity without exception, so it is called the world”. The praise is high. According to Song Lian of the Ming Dynasty, Zhao’s calligraphy learned from the early years of the “Eight Methods of Understanding, Paying Attention to the Quaint” Book of Siling (ie Gaozong Zhao Gou of the Song Dynasty ), middle-aged to “Zhong Yao and Xixian Family”, and Li Beihai in his later years. . In addition, he also touched the Dingding Stele of Yuan and Wei Dynasty, Tang Yu Shinan, Chu Suiliang, and others, gathering the great achievements of the previous generations. As Wen Jia said: “Wei Gong is the best calligraphy of the ancients, all imitating.” Therefore, Zhao’s ability to achieve such an achievement in calligraphy is inseparable from his good at absorbing the strengths of others.

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