Chinese Cities – Chongqing

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Chongqing referred to as “渝”, another name for the mountain city, is the People’s Republic of China provincial-level administrative regions, municipalities, National Center City, mega-cities, the State Council, one of the important centers approved determine the cities in China, the upper reaches of the Yangtze River economic center of the country’s major modern manufacturing Industrial base, a comprehensive transportation hub in southwestern China. With a total area of 82,400 square kilometers, it has jurisdiction over 26 districts, 8 counties, and 4 autonomous counties, with a permanent population of 31,243,200, an urban population of 20,869,900, and a permanent resident population of 1,676,500.
Chongqing is located in the southwest of China’s interior. It is the economic, financial, technological innovation, shipping, and commercial logistics center in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River, a national logistics hub, an important strategic fulcrum for the development of the western region, the ” Belt and Road ” and the Yangtze River Economic Belt Important connection points and inland open highlands, beautiful places with beautiful mountains and clear waters; It is not only famous for river cities, fog cities, and bridges but also famous for mountain cities. Chongqing is dominated by the Han nationality, and the minorities mainly include the Tujia and Miao nationalities. There are rich tourism resources, including the Three Gorges of the Yangtze River, the World Cultural Heritage Dazu Rock Carvings, the World Natural Heritage Wulong Karst, and Nanchuan Jinfo Mountain.
Chongqing is a national historical and cultural city. In 1189, Song Guangzong Zhao Dun first named King Gong and then became the emperor, calling himself “double celebration”, and Chongqing got its name from this. Chongqing is the “Red Rock spirit” origin, Bayu culture birthplace, ” pot “, ” stilts ” and other far-reaching; in 3000 years of written records in, on three occasions as the capital, four fortifications, known as “巴渝”; it was the accompanying capital of the Nationalist Government during the Anti-Japanese War.
Chongqing Hongya cave
Chongqing is the largest industrial and commercial city in Southwest China, an important modern manufacturing base in the country. There are 10 national key laboratories, 10 national engineering technology research centers, 68 universities, China (Chongqing) Pilot Free Trade Zone, China-Singapore (Chongqing) Strategic Interconnection Demonstration Projects, Liangjiang New District, Yuxin-Europe International Railway, Western (Chongqing) Science City, and other strategic projects.

 

Geographical environment

Position

Chongqing is located in southwestern China and the upper reaches of the Yangtze River. It straddles the transition zone between the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the plains of the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River between 105°11’~110°11′ east longitude and 28°10’~32°13′ north latitude. [59] It borders Hubei and Hunan to the east, Guizhou to the south, Sichuan to the west, and Shaanxi to the north; the jurisdiction is 470 kilometers long from east to west, 450 kilometers wide from north to south, and covers an area of 82,400 square kilometers.

Terrain

Chongqing has Daba Mountain in the north, Wu Mountain in the east, Wuling Mountain in the southeast, and Dalou Mountain in the south. The altitude of the main urban area of Chongqing is mostly between 168 and 400 meters. The highest peak in the city is Yintiaoling, the main peak of Jieliang Mountain on the eastern edge of Wuxi County, with an elevation of 2796.8 meters; the lowest in the water surface of the Yangtze River in Wushan County, with an elevation of 73.1 meters. The elevation difference of Chongqing is 2723.7 meters. The mountains are high and deep, ravines are vertical and horizontal, with mountain areas accounting for 76%, hills accounting for 22%, and river valley flat dams accounting for only 2%. Among them, the area under 500 meters above sea level is 31,800 square kilometers, accounting for 38.61% of the total area; 20,900 square kilometers at altitudes of 500 to 800 meters, accounting for 25.41% of the total area; 16,800 square kilometers at altitudes of 800 to 1,200 meters, Accounting for 20.42% of the area; 12,800 square kilometers above 1,200 meters above sea level, accounting for 15.56% of the area.
Chongqing’s terrain descends gradually from north to south to the Yangtze River valley. The northwest and central area are dominated by hills and low mountains, and the southeast is surrounded by two large mountains, Daba Mountain and Wuling Mountain. There are many slopes and it is called a “mountain city”. The total terrain is high in the southeast and northeast, low in the middle and west, and gradually decreases from north to south to the Yangtze River valley.

Climate

Chongqing belongs to a subtropical monsoon humid climate, with an average annual temperature of 16~18℃, the Yangtze River Valley’s Banan, Qijiang, Yunyang and other places are above 18.5℃, Qianjiang, Youyang and other places in the southeast are 14~16℃, and the northeast is above sea level. The higher city entrance is only 13.7℃, the average temperature of the hottest month is 26~29℃, and the average temperature of the coldest month is 4~8℃. The four seasons can be clearly distinguished by the weather temperature method. The average annual precipitation is relatively abundant. Most areas are between 1000 and 1350 mm. The precipitation is mostly concentrated in May to September, accounting for about 70% of the total annual precipitation. The night rains are especially severe at the turn of spring and summer.

Chongqing Liberation Monument

The annual average relative humidity in Chongqing is mostly 70% to 80%, which is a high humidity area in China. The annual sunshine hours are 1000~1400 hours, and the sunshine percentage is only 25%~35%. It is one of the regions with the least sunshine in China. Winter and spring sunshine is less, accounting for only about 35% of the whole year. The main climate characteristics can be summarized as warm winter and early spring, hot summer, and cool autumn, four distinct seasons, long frost-free period; humid air, abundant precipitation; weak solar radiation, short sunshine time; cloudy and fog, less frost and snow; light, temperature and water in the same season, three-dimensional climate Obviously, climate resources are abundant, and weather disasters are frequent.
Due to the dual effects of terrain and climate, Chongqing is foggy, and it is known as “Fog Chongqing” and “Fog City”. The average annual foggy days are 104. London, the world’s foggy capital, has only 94 foggy days, and the foggy capital of the Far East in Tokyo, Japan, has only 55 days. Yunwu Mountain in Bishan District has as many as 204 foggy days throughout the year, which can be called the “most in the world”.

Hydrology

The main rivers in Chongqing are the Yangtze River, Jialing River, Wujiang River, Fujian River, Qijiang River, Daning River, Apeng River, Youshui River, etc. The mainstream of the Yangtze River traverses the entire territory from west to east, with a flow of 665 kilometers, traversing the three Wushan anticlines, forming the famous Qutang Gorge, Wu Gorge and Xiling Gorge in Hubei, the world-famous Three Gorges of the Yangtze River; Jialing River comes from the northwest. , 30% off into the Yangtze River in Yuzhong District, Wujiang River into the Yangtze River in Fuling District, there are Libi Gorge, Wentang Gorge, Guanyin Gorge, namely the Jialing River Small Three Gorges.
chongqing city view

Natural resources

Water resources

The annual average total amount of water resources in Chongqing is about 50 billion cubic meters[65], which is the first in the country for water area per square kilometer. The theoretical reserves of hydropower resources are 14.3828 million kilowatts, and the developable capacity is 7.5 million kilowatts, Chongqing per square kilometer. The total installed capacity of developable hydropower is three times the national average. In addition, there are abundant underground heat and drinking mineral water.
In 2019, Chongqing’s water resources totaled 49.728 billion cubic meters. The average annual precipitation is 1105.5 mm. The total annual water consumption was 7.663 billion cubic meters. The area of soil erosion was 1,426 square kilometers.

Mineral resources

As of 2012, Chongqing has discovered 68 types of minerals, and 54 types of minerals with identified resource reserves, covering ferrous metals, non-ferrous metals, precious metals, rare metals, rare elements, metallurgical auxiliary materials, chemical raw materials, non-metallic minerals, energy minerals, and construction materials and other non-metallic minerals and other minerals. The actual advantageous minerals include natural gas, strontium ore, coal, bauxite, manganese ore, toxicity, powdered quartz, gypsum, limestone for cement, salt ore, geothermal, etc. A total of more than 68 kinds of minerals have been discovered and mined, accounting for about 27% of the world’s known minerals. There are 54 kinds of minerals with proven reserves, mainly coal, natural gas, strontium, iron-sulfur, rock salt, bauxite, mercury, manganese, Barium, marble, limestone, barite, etc. In particular, the reserves and grades of coal, natural gas, bauxite, salt ore, strontium ore, manganese ore and barium ore have obvious advantages in China.
chongqing night scenery

Biological resources

There are more than 6,000 types of plants in Chongqing, among which are the rare species of Alsophila spinulosa, Metasequoia glyptostroboides, Taiwan fir, silver fir and Davidia involucrata, which are called “living fossils” of plants, with a forest coverage rate of 20.49%. Jinyun Mountain, known as “Bayu Emei” alone, has more than 1,700 subtropical trees and preserves the “living fossil” Metasequoias 160 million years ago, Bole trees, moth trees and other rare and rare plants in the world. Nanchuan Jinfo Mountain, a national natural protection and scenic spot, with 5880 plant species in 333 families, 52 species of rare plants such as silver fir, square bamboo, ginkgo, tea tree, ginseng, and 36 species of national-level protected animals such as black leaf monkeys and leopards There are more than 1,500 species of plants and 207 species of animals in Simian Mountain, Jiangjin, 47 species of animals and plants under national key protection, and 23 species of rare animals.
Chongqing is one of China’s important producing areas of Chinese medicinal materials. The wild and artificially cultivated Chinese medicinal materials grown in large areas of mountainous areas include Coptis, Atractylodes, Honeysuckle, Codonopsis, Fritillaria, Gastrodia, Magnolia Officinalis, Yellow Tallow, Eucommia, Yuanhu, Angelica, etc. Shizhu Tujia Autonomous County has the largest output of Coptis Chinensis in the country and is the famous “Hometown of Coptis Chinensis”.
There are more than 600 species of various animal resources in Chongqing, including nearly 100 national key rare protected animals such as golden monkeys, South China tigers, lips, and black storks.
chongqing population

Population and nation

Population

During the Anti-Japanese War, a large population moved inland, reaching 1 million people in Chongqing. In the 33rd year of the Republic of China (1944), the urban population exceeded one million. In the 34th year of the Republic of China (1945), when the war of resistance was won, the population had reached more than 1.25 million. After the victory of the Anti-Japanese War, as the National Government returned to Nanjing and some industrial and mining enterprises, institutions and schools moved away, the Chongqing population gradually shrank. However, the population remained above one million, making it the seventh-largest city in the country at that time.
In 2019, Chongqing had a population of 31,243,200 permanent residents, an increase of 225,300 over the previous year. Among them, the urban population was 20,869,900, accounting for 66.8% of the permanent population (resident population urbanization rate). In the whole year, 4,740,200 people went out of the city and 1.8205 million people went out of the city.
According to the results of the seventh national population census, as of 0:00 on November 1, 2020, the population was 32,054,159.

Nation

Chongqing is the only municipality directly under the Central Government with the Nationality Autonomous Area under its jurisdiction. It has jurisdiction over 4 autonomous counties, 1 district (Qianjiang District) that enjoys the Nationality Autonomous Area’s preferential policies, and 14 Nationality townships.
In 2012, Chongqing’s population was dominated by the Han nationality, in addition to the Tujia, Miao, Hui, Manchu, Yi, Zhuang, Buyi, Mongolian, Tibetan, Bai, Dong, Uygur, Korean, Hani, Dai, and Lisu nationalities. There are 55 minority nationalities including, Wa, Lahu, Shui, Naxi, Qiang, Gelao and so on. The minority Nationality population totals 1.93 million, of which Tujia has the largest population with 1.398 million, followed by Miao with about 480,000. A small number of Nationality population accounted for 5.8% of Chongqing’s population.

 

Education

Before the 28th year of the Republic of China (1937), Chongqing was dominated by secondary education, with 20 ordinary middle schools, 9 normal and vocational schools, plus ordinary middle schools, normal and vocational schools in Ba County (most of Banan District) 8 There are 37 in total. As for institutions of higher learning, Chongqing has only the National Chongqing University and the Provincial Institute of Education ( the predecessor of Southwest University ).
In 1937, the Nationalist Government moved the capital to Chongqing, and Chongqing formed a pattern with higher education as the mainstay, secondary education as the second, and elementary education as the supplement. In terms of higher education, colleges and universities that have moved to Chongqing are Central University, Central Political School (later changed to Central Political University), Fudan University, Jiaotong University, Army University, Military Engineering School, National School of Social Education, National Conservatory of Music, National Jiangsu Medical College, National Art College, National Shanghai Medical College, National Medical College, National Central Technical College, etc.
In 2019, Chongqing has 68 general higher education schools, 4 adult colleges, 180 secondary vocational schools, 1127 general middle schools, 2860 general primary schools, 5660 kindergartens, and 39 special education schools.
Chongqing university

Chongqing Higher Education

School Name
Competent authority
School-level
Remarks
Chinese People’s Liberation Army Army Medical University
People’s Liberation Army Army
Bachelor-Master-PhD
Deputy Army Class, 2110 Project
Chinese People’s Liberation Army Army Service Academy
Deputy Army Class, 2110 Project
PLA Army Engineering University
Communications Sergeant School
Chongqing University
Ministry of Education
Vice-ministerial level, world-class university construction university
Southwest University
World-class discipline construction universities
Chongqing University of Posts And Telecommunications
Chongqing
Public
Chongqing Jiaotong University
Chongqing Medical University
Chongqing Normal University
Sichuan International Studies University
Southwest University of Political Science and Law
Chongqing Technology and Business University
Chongqing University of Technology
Bachelor-Master
Sichuan Academy of Fine Arts
Chongqing University of Science and Technology
Chongqing Three Gorges University
Chongqing University of Arts and Science
Undergraduate
Changjiang Normal University
Chongqing Police College
Chongqing Second Normal University
Chongqing Institute of Technology
Chongqing Municipal Education Commission
Undergraduate
Private
Chongqing University of Finance and Economics
Chongqing Mobile University
Chongqing Institute of Humanities and Science
Chongqing City University of Science and Technology
Chongqing University of Foreign Languages and Foreign Affairs
Chongqing University of International Business and Economics
Pais College, Chongqing Technology and Business University
Chongqing Mechanical and Electrical Vocational and Technical University
Chongqing Industrial Vocational and Technical College
Chongqing
Specialist
National Demonstrative Higher Vocational College
Chongqing Engineering Vocational and Technical College
Chongqing Vocational College of Electronic Engineering
Chongqing Urban Management Vocational College
National Backbone Higher Vocational Colleges
Chongqing Vocational College of Industry and Commerce
Chongqing Electric Power Technical College
Chongqing Aerospace Vocational and Technical College
Chongqing Demonstrative Higher Vocational College
Chongqing Medical College
Chongqing Three Gorges Medical College
Chongqing Three Gorges Vocational College
Chongqing Vocational and Technical College of Industry and Trade
Chongqing City Vocational College
Chongqing Vocational College of Finance and Economics
Chongqing Vocational College of Civil Engineering
Chongqing Water Conservancy and Electric Power Vocational and Technical College
Chongqing Youth Vocational and Technical College
Chongqing Vocational College of Business
Chongqing Vocational College of Chemical Technology
Chongqing Tourism Vocational College
Chongqing Vocational College of Safety Technology
Chongqing Preschool Teachers College
Chongqing Vocational College of Culture and Art
Chongqing Hailian Vocational and Technical College
Chongqing Municipal Education Commission
Private
Chongqing Vocational College of Information Technology
Private
Chongqing Vocational College of Media
Private
Chongqing Vocational College of Architecture and Technology
Private
Chongqing Vocational College of Applied Technology
Private
Chongqing Science and Technology Vocational College
Private
Chongqing Telecommunications Vocational College
Private
Chongqing Energy Vocational College
Private
Chongqing Transportation Vocational College
Private
Chongqing Vocational College of Public Transport
Private
Chongqing Vocational College of Art and Engineering
Private
Chongqing Vocational College of Light Industry
Private
Chongqing Telecommunications Vocational College
Private
Chongqing Vocational College of Economics and Trade
Private
Chongqing Vocational College of Science and Technology
Private
Chongqing Vocational College of Resources and Environmental Protection
Private
Chongqing Vocational College of Nursing
Private
Chongqing Intelligent Engineering Vocational College
Private
Chongqing Health Vocational College
Private
Chongqing Vocational College of Technology
Private
Chongqing Electric Power Workers University
Chongqing
Adult Higher School
Chongqing Adult Metallurgical College
Chongqing Staff Accounting College
Chongqing Radio and Television University
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