Chinese Cities – Guangzhou

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Guangzhou (Guangzhou), referred to as “穗”, also known as “sheep city” and “flower city”, is the provincial capital, sub-provincial city, national central city, megacity, core city of the Guangzhou metropolitan area, an important central city in China approved by the State Council, and international commerce Center and integrated transport hub. As of 2019, the city has 11 districts with a total area of 7,434 square kilometers, a built-up area of 1,249,11 square kilometers, a permanent population of 15,305,900, an urban population of 13,233,500, and an urbanization rate of 86.46%.
Guangzhou is located in the south of China, the lower reaches of the Pearl River, and the South China Sea. It is the headquarters of the Southern China Theater Command. It is a national logistics hub, a national comprehensive gateway city, and the first batch of coastal open cities. It is China’s southern gateway to the world, Guangdong, Hong Kong, and Macau. Central cities in the Greater Bay Area, Pan-Pearl River Delta Economic Zone, and hub cities along the Belt and Road.
Guangzhou is the first batch of national historical and cultural cities and the birthplace of Cantonese culture. Since the Qin Dynasty, it has been the seat of the prefecture, state, and government governance, and the political, military, economic, cultural, and scientific, and educational center of South China. Since the third century AD, it has become the main port of the Maritime Silk Road, the largest port in China in the Tang and Song Dynasties, the world-famous Oriental Port City, and the only major foreign trade port in China in the Ming and Qing Dynasties, and it is also the only port in the world for more than 2,000 years. The prosperous Dagang.
Guangzhou is rated as the world’s first-tier city by the global authority GaWC. The China Import and Export Fair held every year attracts a large number of merchants and investment from a large number of foreign-funded enterprises and Fortune 500 companies. In 2017, Forbes ranked second in the list of the best commercial cities in mainland China; ranked third in the top 100 cities in China. In 2018, Guangzhou’s Human Development Index ranked first in China, and the National Central City Index ranked third in China. As of 2019, the total number of college students in Guangzhou reached 1,139,600, ranking first in the country.

Aerial photo of Guangzhou

 

Geographical environment

Location

Guangzhou is located in southern China, central and southern Guangdong Province, and the north-central edge of the Pearl River Delta. It is the confluence of the Xijiang, Beijiang and Dongjiang rivers. It is one of the starting points of the Maritime Silk Road, the “South Gate” of China, and the city of Guangzhou and Foshan, bordering Dongguan and Zhongshan in the south, and facing Hong Kong and Macau across the sea. The core cities of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao metropolitan area, and the Pearl River Delta metropolitan area.
Guangzhou is located at 112 degrees 57 minutes to 114 degrees 3 minutes east longitude and 22 degrees 26 minutes to 23 degrees 56 minutes north latitude. The city center is located at 23 degrees 06 minutes 32 seconds north latitude and 113 degrees 15 minutes 53 seconds east longitude.

Topography

Guangzhou is a hilly area, with high terrain in the northeast and low in the southwest. It is backed by mountains and faces the sea. The north is a hilly mountainous area with concentrated forests. The highest peak is Tiantangding at the junction of Conghua City and Longmen County in the north, with an elevation of 1,210 meters; the northeast is a middle-low mountainous area , There is Baiyun Mountain known as the “city lung”; the center is a hilly basin, and the south is a coastal alluvial plain, which is a component of the Pearl River Delta.

Climate

Guangzhou is located in the subtropical coast, with the Tropic of Cancer passing through the central and southern regions. It belongs to the maritime subtropical monsoon climate, characterized by warm and rainy, abundant light and heat, long summers and short frost periods. The annual average temperature is 20-22 degrees Celsius, which is one of the largest cities in China with the smallest annual average temperature difference. The hottest month of the year is July, with an average monthly temperature of 28.7°C. The coldest month is January, with an average monthly temperature of 9-16°C. The average relative humidity is 77%, and the annual rainfall in the urban area is about 1,720 mm. Throughout the year, the rainy season is from April to June, the weather is hot and typhoon from July to September, the temperature is moderate in October, November, and March, and the cool winter is from December to February. The water and heat are at the same time throughout the year, and the rainfall is abundant, which is conducive to the growth of plants. It is a “flower city” with evergreen flowers in all seasons.
Canton Tower

Hydrology

Guangzhou is located in the abundant water area in the south, with developed river systems, many large and small rivers (gushes), and vast water areas. There are 22 rivers with rain-collecting areas of more than 100 square kilometers and 1,368 rivers with a width of more than 5 meters. The total length is 5,597.36 kilometers, and the river density reaches 0.75 kilometers per square kilometer, which constitutes the unique cultural characteristics of Lingnan water town.

Natural resources

Biological resources

Cultivated crops in Guangzhou have a distinctive feature of transition from tropical to subtropical, and are one of the most abundant fruit tree resources in the country. They include 3 categories, 41 families, 82 genera, 174 species and varieties in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions, with a total of more than 500 varieties ( Among them, there are 55 main varieties of lychee), which is the center of the origin and types of lychee, longan, yellow peel, and black (white) lam.
Vegetables are known for their high-quality and multi-variety. There are 15 categories, 127 species and more than 370 varieties. Flowers include fresh cut flowers, potted plants, ornamental seedlings, edible and medicinal flowers, industrial and other purpose flowers, lawns, and seedlings. There are more than 3000 traditional varieties and new varieties introduced, developed and utilized in recent years.

Mineral resources

The geological structure of Guangzhou is quite complex and has good conditions for mineralization. 47 kinds of minerals have been discovered, 820 mineral deposits, including 22 large and medium-sized deposits. The main minerals are granite for construction, limestone for cement, ceramic soil, potassium, albite, salt mine, mirabilite, nepheline syenite, fluorite, marble, mineral water and hot mineral water. There is a shortage of energy minerals and non-ferrous metal minerals in the jurisdiction, which are scattered, small in scale and unstable in grade.

Population

 

guangzhou population
At the end of 2019, Guangzhou had a population of 15.3059 million permanent residents, with an urbanization rate of 86.46%. At the end of the year, the household registration population was 9,537,200, and the urbanization rate was 79.90%; the annual household registration population was 139,800, and the birth rate was 14.86‰; the death population was 48,300, and the death rate was 5.14‰; the natural growth population was 91,500, which was natural The growth rate is 9.72‰. The household registration moved into a population of 21,500, and the moved out of population was 43,000, and the mechanical growth of population was 167,500.
In 2020, there will be a population of 18,676,600 permanent residents.

Minority

In 2015, there were 718,000 minority populations in Guangzhou, belonging to 55 minorities. Among them, there are 88,000 people with household registration minority population and 630,000 people without household registration minority population.

Overseas Chinese

Guangzhou is “adjacent to Hong Kong and Macao, with many overseas Chinese”. It is the largest overseas Chinese city in the country. At the end of 2015, there were nearly 4 million overseas Chinese, Hong Kong and Macao compatriots, returned overseas Chinese, and their relatives in Hong Kong and Macao.

Foreigner

As a window of foreign trade, Guangzhou has a large number of foreigners. In 2013, the number of foreigners entering and leaving the country from various ports in Guangzhou reached 5.206 million. As of October 25, 2014, there were 118,000 foreigners living in Guangzhou, including 57,000 in Asia, 36,000 in Europe and America, and 16,000 in Africa.

Education

Guangzhou has 82 colleges and universities, with a total of 1,139,600 college students, ranking first in the country; Guangzhou gathers 97% of the province’s national key disciplines and 80% of colleges and universities. It is one of the most developed cities in China for higher education. The most densely populated city in southern China, the science and education center in southern China. The South China Branch of the School of Economics of Peking University settled in Guangzhou. The production-study-research base of Wudaokou School of Finance of Tsinghua University has clearly settled in Guangzhou. Guangzhou College of the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences officially settled down. The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology will build a branch campus in Nansha, Guangzhou.
guangzhou university
In 2019, the graduate education enrolled 39,500 students, 112,400 postgraduate students and 26,700 graduates. The general higher education undergraduate and junior college enrolled 361,600 new students, 1,153,300 students, and 290,000 graduates. The technical schools enrolled 86,600 students, 244,100 students, and 73,600 graduates. Secondary vocational schools enrolled 63,500 students, 181,100 students and 58,200 graduates. Regular secondary schools enrolled 184,700 students, with 526,200 students and 164,400 graduates. Ordinary primary schools have enrolled 211,900 students, including 1.1047 million students, and 147,700 graduates. There are 527,600 children in kindergartens. The number of primary school students exceeds that of Beijing and Shanghai.

Guangzhou undergraduate colleges

School name
Competent authority
Remarks
Sun Yat-sen University
Building a world-class university
South China University of Technology
Ministry of Education
Jinan University
United Front Work Department
World-class discipline construction universities
South China Normal University
Guangdong Province
Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine
South China Agricultural University
Key Construction Universities of Guangdong Province High-level Universities
Guangdong University of Technology
Southern Medical University
Guangdong University of Foreign Studies
Key Discipline Construction University of Guangdong Province High-level University
Guangzhou Medical University
Guangzhou University
Guangdong University of Finance and Economics
Guangdong Province Characteristic College Promotion Plan
Guangdong Technical Normal University
Guangdong Pharmaceutical University
Guangzhou Art College
Guangdong University of Finance
Guangzhou Institute of Physical Education
Guangdong Police Academy
Xinghai Conservatory of Music
Zhongkai University of Agriculture Engineering
Guangdong Second Normal University
Guangzhou Maritime College
Guangzhou Business School
Provincial Department of Education
Private colleges
Guangzhou Institute of Technology
Guangdong Baiyun University
Guangdong Peizheng University
Southern College of Sun Yat-sen University
Xinhua College, Sun Yat-sen University
South China University of Technology, Guangzhou College
Zhujiang College of South China Agricultural University
Nanguo Business School, Guangdong University of Foreign Studies
Huali College, Guangdong University of Technology
Guangzhou Huashang College
Guangzhou Institute of Applied Science and Technology
Guangzhou Software Institute

 

Guangzhou colleges and universities

School name
Competent authority
School-level/nature
Guangzhou Panyu Vocational and Technical College
Provincial government
National Demonstrative Higher Vocational College
Guangzhou Civil Aviation Vocational and Technical College
Civil Aviation Administration
Guangdong Industry Technical College
Provincial Government, Provincial Department of Education
Guangdong Transportation Vocational and Technical College
Provincial Department of Education
National Backbone Higher Vocational Colleges
Guangdong Water Conservancy and Electric Power Vocational and Technical College
Provincial Department of Water Resources, Provincial Department of Education
Guangzhou Railway Vocational and Technical College
Provincial government
Guangdong Vocational College of Science and Technology
Provincial Department of Education
Guangzhou Maritime Technical College
Provincial government
College
Guangdong Vocational College of Foreign Languages and Arts
Provincial Department of Education
Guangdong Vocational and Technical College of Industry and Trade
Provincial government
Guangdong Mechanical and Electrical Vocational and Technical College
Provincial Department of Education
Guangdong Construction Vocational and Technical College
Provincial government
Guangdong Polytechnic Vocational College
Provincial government
Guangdong Judicial Police Vocational College
Provincial Department of Justice
Guangdong Administration Vocational College
Provincial Party School
Guangdong Sports Vocational and Technical College
Provincial Sports Bureau
Guangdong Vocational College of Literature and Art
Provincial Federation of Literary and Art Circles
Guangdong Food and Drug Vocational College
Provincial Health Department
Guangdong Women’s Vocational and Technical College
Provincial Women’s Federation
Guangdong Vocational College of Agriculture, Industry, and Commerce
Provincial Land Reclamation Group Corporation
Guangdong Vocational and Technical College of Posts and Telecommunications
Provincial Telecommunications Company
Guangdong Engineering Vocational and Technical College
Provincial Association for Science and Technology
Guangdong Vocational College of Science and Trade
Provincial Department of Education
Guangdong Youth Vocational College
Guangdong Provincial Committee of the Communist Youth League
Guangdong Vocational College of Dance and Drama
Provincial Department of Culture
Guangzhou Sports Vocational and Technical College
Guangzhou Municipal Government
Guangzhou Vocational College of Engineering and Technology
Guangzhou Municipal Government
Guangzhou City Vocational College
Guangzhou Municipal Government
Guangzhou Vocational College of Technology and Trade
Guangzhou Municipal Government
Private Nanhua Business School
Provincial Department of Education
College (private)
Private Hualian College
Provincial Department of Education
Guangdong Lingnan Vocational and Technical College
Provincial Department of Education
Guangzhou Kangda Vocational and Technical College
Provincial Department of Education
Guangzhou Vocational and Technical College of Industry and Commerce
Provincial Department of Education
Guangzhou Vocational and Technical College of Foreign Economics
Provincial Department of Education
Guangzhou Nanyang Polytechnic Vocational College
Provincial Department of Education
Guangzhou Vocational and Technical College of Science and Technology
Provincial Department of Education
Guangzhou South China Business Vocational College
Provincial Department of Education
Guangzhou Huali Vocational College of Technology
Provincial Department of Education
Guangzhou Modern Information Engineering Vocational and Technical College
Provincial Department of Education
Guangzhou Pearl River Vocational and Technical College
Provincial Department of Education
Guangzhou Songtian Vocational College
Provincial Department of Education
Guangzhou Urban Construction Vocational College
Provincial Department of Education
Guangzhou Huashang Vocational College
Provincial Department of Education
Guangzhou Huaxia Vocational College
Provincial Department of Education
Guangzhou Donghua Vocational College
Provincial Department of Education
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