Chinese Nation – Daur

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Daur is one of 56 ethnic groups in China, mainly distributed in Molidawa Daur Autonomous Banner of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Meilisdaur District of Qiqihar City, Heilongjiang Province, and Ewenki Autonomous Banner; a few live in Tacheng of Xinjiang, Liaoning Province, etc.

 

The Daur nationality’s residence was first recorded as the Taoer River, which moved to the north of Heilongjiang in the early Ming Dynasty. In the middle of the 17th century, because of the Sino-Russian border war, the Qing government strengthened the rear area, and the Daur nationality first moved to the Nenjiang River Basin, a small part of which is still in today’s outer Baikal area. Later, because the Qing government recruited young people to garrison the border towns in Northeast China and Xinjiang, the current distribution situation gradually formed.

 

The Daur nationality has its own language. The original language has been lost. Now it uses the Latin alphabet-based language. Now the Daur nationality is basically proficient in Chinese and can write Chinese. Most of the Daur people who live together with the Mongolian nationality are proficient in the Mongolian language. The Daur nationality was good at fighting, and the later Jin Dynasty consolidated the rear area by entering the pass. They fought against Sauron three times, so there was a saying that Sauron was the best in the world on horseback. In the internal and external wars of the Qing Dynasty, Daur generals participated. During the Anti-Japanese War, he made outstanding contributions to the Anti-Japanese war in Northeast China. The Daur people are good at singing and dancing. Folk music has many forms, such as folk songs, counterpart singing, and dance lyrics.

 

Daur dancing

 

Religious belief

Like other Altaic nationalities, Daur mainly believes in Shamanism. In the long-term historical development, although the Daur people have been influenced by Lamaism, Taoism, and Catholicism, and some people have worshipped the gods of Guandi and Niangniang in the Han Dynasty, foreign religions and gods are not enough to destroy the integrity and independence of Shamanism, and have not shaken the original position of traditional Shamanism in the Daur spiritual culture. Until the founding of new China, Shamanism was still the common religion of Daur people living in different areas.

 

In the Daur language, the wizard who presides over religious activities is usually called “Sandakan”. Due to the different transliteration of Chinese, the word “Cadogan” is written in different ways, such as “Madigan”, “yuan”, “Yedegen”. Religious people believe that Yadegan is the spokesman of God and the protector of human beings. They have special character and magical ability. They can communicate with God and pray for the people to exorcise ghosts, make divination and sacrifice, and eliminate disasters. Yadagan has no special status and does not break away from production. He usually takes part in production and labor, and when he has something to do, he will perform religious rites and sacrificial activities for others. Yatagan has no fixed places for religious activities such as temples and temples and has not formed a unified religious organization. It has always maintained the primitive and simple characteristics of natural religion.

 

Daur clothes

 

Clothes & Accessories

In the Qing Dynasty and before the Qing Dynasty, the Daur nationality maintained the traditional dress culture of leather clothing. Men’s clothing has a strong seasonality, people change different kinds of clothes according to the change of season and climate. In winter, men wear fur robes made of animal skins or animal skins from the beginning of winter to the Spring Festival. In spring and autumn, men wear a knee-long fur robe called “harami”. This kind of leather robe is made of roe deerskin in spring, summer, or early autumn. Due to the lack of cloth, men wear leather pants all year round. There are many kinds of hats on men’s heads, such as leather hats in winter, felt hats in spring and autumn, straw hats in summer, top hats when meeting guests, official hats on solemn occasions, roe deer head leather hats when hunting, etc.

 

Daur costume was deeply influenced by the surrounding nationalities in history, and the shape of the robe was similar to Manchu Qipao. Before the end of the Qing Dynasty, they all wore animal skin clothes. After the Republic of China, cotton, cloth, and satin robes became the main costumes of the Daur people. They had a standing collar, right lapel, big skirt, leather pants or cloth pants, and the old people liked to wear jackets and shoulders. The collar and cuffs of the men’s robe have wide hems, with patterns embroidered on the edges, and the right oblique placket below the collar also has a wide placket edge, which is composed of multiple light-colored strips of cloth. The belt is made of leather or cloth and hung with smoking utensils. Women’s robes are sometimes covered with coats or scarves, with exquisite patterns embroidered on the skirt, cuffs, neckline, and hem. The sleeves on the skirt are inlaid with two side decorations, wide and narrow, and embroidered with patterns. The robes of the old are wide, while those of the young are narrow and thin.

 

Daur traditional cart

 

Traditional festival

Agne Festival is the biggest traditional festival of Daur nationality, which is equivalent to the Spring Festival of Han nationality. From the beginning of the twelfth lunar month, people begin to be busy with Agne Festival, preparing all kinds of food for the new year.

 

At Kumul Festival, Kumul is Artemisia Selengensis bud, and wild vegetables are edible. Every May, groups of Daur people, old and young, with deep gratitude, happily go to collect willow wormwood buds and sing and dance. It’s fun to hold traditional sports competitions.

 

Defamation day (Kuodege Wudu day), the 16th day of the first month is one of the traditional festivals of the Daur nationality. The “judge Wudu day” of the Daur nationality originates from the Daur Spring Festival, which is regarded as the Spring Festival from the new year’s Eve to the 15th day of the first month.

 

Daur food

 

Special diet

Cabbage foam (spicy vegetable foam, Da language: Yinnesennuca) is made of fresh cabbage leaves and salt, green pepper, celery, garlic, coriander, and other ingredients. It tastes slightly spicy and fragrant. It can be eaten as pickle or stew. Noodles can be used as bittern. It can be used to stew meat, tofu, and potato.

 

Stewed bean curd with Chinese cabbage foam is a traditional famous dish of Daur nationality. When it is made, the leaves of Chinese cabbage are separated from the stems. The leaves are made into Chinese cabbage foam and the stems are cut and then mixed with some hot pepper pickles. It is also a traditional pickle of Daur nationality. In Da language, it is called “Kerichemolenuwa”, that is, pickles can be stewed and fried.

 

Leek flower, called “Solis” in Chinese, is a delicious pickle as well as a delicious seasoning. It is an indispensable condiment for eating hot pot and meat.

 

Artemisia Selengensis bud, which is called “Kumule” in the Da language, is one of the traditional dishes that Daur people like to eat. “Kumble” has the functions of brightening eyes, clearing stomach heat, purging liver fire, and benefiting kidney water. It tastes slightly bitter, tender, and fragrant when it is young. It is a traditional delicacy. It is natural and pure green in the wild.

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