Chinese opera – Opera facial makeup

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Generally speaking, the makeup of “生” and “旦” is a little application of powder to achieve the effect of fluffing. This kind of makeup is called a “jun dress”. The facial makeup of the characters of “生” and “旦” is the same regardless of the number of characters. The personalities of “生” and “旦” characters mainly depend on performances and costumes.
Facial makeup is mainly used for various characters in “净” and “丑” professions. It uses exaggerated strong colors and endlessly changing lines to change the original face of the actor. It is also used for “plain” and “dan” makeup. forms a contrast. The “净” and “丑” characters’ hooking faces are set for each person. Although it is composed of various stylized patterns, it is a kind of personality makeup that directly expresses the personality of the character. The roles of “net” and “丑” have so many different patterns and are not the same.
The deformation of the opera facial makeup is bold and exaggerated, but this kind of boldness and exaggeration is not made by smearing casually. There are certain rules and methods. Facial makeup art is very particular about composition. The dots, lines, colors, and shapes are regularly organized into decorative patterns. From this, various formats and rules of opera facial makeup are formed, that is, a certain formula is formed.
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Spectral Classification

Spectral classification is based on the composition of the face to classify. Generally can be divided into the following basic types:

(1)Whole face

The makeup color of the face is basically a hue, but there are changes in the eyebrows and eyes, and the composition is simple. For example, Bao Zheng in “The Case of the Beauty ” has a black face, Guan Yu in “War of Changsha” has a red face, and Cao Cao in ” The Battle of Chibi ” has a white face.

(2)Three tile face

also known as the three-piece nest face, the most basic pattern. Use one color as the background color, draw the eyebrows, eyes, and nose with black, and divide them into three parts: the forehead and the left and right cheeks, which are shaped like three tiles. Such as Chao Gai, Ma Di, Guan Sheng, and so on.

(3)Three-tile face

also known as a three-tile face. Based on the three-tile face, many patterns are added, and the lines of the eyebrow, eye socket, and nose socket are more complicated. Such as Dou Erdun, Dianwei , Cao Hong and so on.

(4)Cross gate face

draw a pierced sky from the top of the forehead to the tip of the nose. The two eye sockets are connected by a horizontal line. The cross between the pillar lines and the horizontal line forms a cross shape, so it is named “cross gate face”. For example, Yao Qi in Caoqiaoguan and Zhang Fei in Hanjinkou.

(5)Six point face

the vertical lines on the forehead and the parts below the eyes are painted in the same color, the colors other than the vertical lines on the forehead account for four-tenths of the entire face, and the colors below the eyes account for six-tenths of the entire face, forming up and down The form of four or six points, so-called “six points face”. For example, Huang Gai in “The Meeting of Heroes” and Lian Ping in “The Harmony of Generals”.
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(6)Broken face

evolved from the “three-tile face”, fancier than the “three-tile face”. The composition forms are diverse, the colors are rich, and the lines are complex and fragmented. Such as Ma Wu in “Taking Luoyang”, Yang Qilang in “Golden Beach” and so on.

(7)Crooked face

The composition and color are not symmetrical, giving a feeling of crookedness. Such as Zheng Ziming ( Zheng En ) in “Da Long Peng”, Yu Liang in “Luo Ma Hu”, and so on.

(8)Ingot face

The forehead and face have different colors, and its shape is like ingot, so it is called an “ingot face.” Such as Xu Sheng, Ma Shumou, and so on.
The monk face includes “monk face” and “Taoist face”. “Monk face”, also known as “monk’s face”, usually hooks big round eyes, flower nose sockets, flower mouth forks, and a red relic of round light on the forehead, or nine dots, indicating that you have entered Buddhism. The colors are divided into white, red, yellow, and blue, and white is more common. Such as Lu Zhishen , Yang Yande ( Yang Wulang ) and so on.
The eunuch’s face is dedicated to express those eunuchs who take power and harm others. The sharp eyebrows show that he is treacherous; the chopper’s eye sockets hide his fish and meat people; the bare mouth is turned off to highlight his deceptive and cruel personality; the forehead is rounded to show that he is castrated and he is a Buddhist disciple; forehead and The fat lines on the cheeks show a pampered, well-behaved look. The colors are mostly white and red. Such as Liu Jin, Yi Li, etc.
The faces of gods and monsters are used to express the faces of gods, Buddhas, and ghosts. Gold and silver are mainly used to express the sense of illusion. Such as Erlang God Yang Jianniu Demon King and so on.
The pictographic face patterned the overall or partial features of birds and beasts on the face. Such as Monkey King, White Tiger, etc.
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Harlequin Face Chou is also called “Little Flower Face” and “Sanhua Face”. It is characterized by a piece of white in the center of the face of the figure, with shapes such as tofu, peach, jujube, kidney, and chrysanthemum. Such as Jiang Qian in “The Heroines “, Chongguang Dao in “Nu Qijie”, Zhu Guangzu in ” Lian Huan Tao ” and so on.
The above is the general classification of the overall spectrum of Facebook, which can be divided into more detailed and more, but generally can be classified into one of the above categories. For example, the face of the little demon represents the characters of the heavenly generals and the little demon in the myth drama. Its basic form is a pictographic face, which can be classified as a god and strange face, so there is no need to classify it.

Local spectral classification

Local spectral classification is the classification of the shape of the eyebrows, eye sockets, nose sockets, mouth forks, forehead, and cheeks.
The modeling image of the local parts is the specific place to portray the character’s character, which is created according to the understanding of the characters in the play and the actor’s own conditions. Generally, dot and line decoration and patterned modeling methods are commonly used, and the naming method of object-like shapes is adopted.
The eyebrow forms are: moire eyebrow, butterfly wing eyebrow, willow eyebrow, mantis eyebrow, mantis eyebrow, mandarin duck eyebrow, flower eyebrow, straight eyebrow, ring eyebrow, dimple eyebrow, square eyebrow, pointed eyebrow, point eyebrow, duck egg eyebrow, stick mallet Eyebrow, gourd eyebrow, flame eyebrow, longevity eyebrow, etc.
The eye forms are butterfly winged eye, hanging eye, birds eye, split eye, straight eye socket, old eye, magpie eye, hook cloud eye socket, sharp eye socket, wrinkled eye socket, one-word continuous eye, hanging old eye, thin eye, triangular eye Wait.
The forms of nasal sockets are: bat-shaped inverted nasal socket, back-patterned inverted nasal socket, straight nose, round nasal socket, eye socket, pointed nasal socket, straight nasal socket with cheeks, mountain-shaped inverted nose, tiger-shaped nose Nest, flower nose nest, etc.
The forms of the forehead are double-circle pattern forehead, moire pattern forehead, golden forehead, red forehead, bat pattern forehead, wishful square seal pattern, flower column forehead, dotted cone pattern, relic forehead, halberd pattern, gourd Amount, flame amount, sun and moon amount, Tai Chi forehead, etc.
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Spectral color classification

In general, the colors of the forehead and cheeks of the face make up the main color of the face, and the spectrum color classification is based on the main color of the face.
The color spectrum has a relatively fixed symbolic meaning and special meaning, which expresses the basic character characteristics of the characters. This is the result of interactive dialogues and conventions between audiences in long-term opera performances. Here is the classification of spectral colors.

(1)Red face

Represents a loyal, courageous, bloody, and brave figure. Such as Guan Yu, Zhao Kuangyin, Jiang Wei, and so on. But there are exceptions. For example, Liu Jin, the villain in Famen Temple, blushes. There is a sense of irony here, which makes people know that he is a powerful eunuch.

(2)Pink face

a loyal and respected veteran who is old and weak. Such as Lian Po, Yuan Shao, etc.

(3)Purple face

Represents a fortitude, mighty, steady, and calm character. Such as Chang Yuchun, Fan Kuai, and so on.

(4)Yellow face

It means that the generals are brave and cruel, such as Dianwei and Yuwen Chengdu. It means that the scribes have schemed, such as Ji Lao.

(5)Blue face

Represents an upright, brave, unruly character. Such as Dou Erdun, Xiahou Dun and so on.

(6)Green face

Represents a character who is chivalrous and irritable. Such as Cheng Yaojin, green-faced tiger, and so on.

(7)Black face

A person who is loyal, honest, selfless, or reckless. Such as Bao Zheng, Zhang Fei, Xia Houyuan, and so on.
black face

(8)White face

divided into water white face and oil white face. Shui Bailian means insidious, treacherous, and scheming. Such as Cao Cao, Zhao Gao, Yan Song, and so on. The white face is mostly used for villains, but there are exceptions, such as Lu Zhishen and Yang Yande (Yang Wulang).

(9)Tile gray face

indicates an old man.

(10)Gold and silver face

generally used for gods, buddhas, ghosts, symbolizing the sense of illusion. Such as Erlang God, Golden-Winged Bird, and so on. Also used for some brave and invincible generals or generals. Such as Li Yuanba , Jin Wushu and so on.

Extended information

 

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The function of facial makeup is not only to express character but also to indicate various situations of the character. For example, Xiang Yu’s eyes are painted as “crying”, which indicates his tragic ending. Bao Gong’s frowning indicates that he is worried. Monkey shaped face of Monkey King indicates that he is a monkey. The other function is “distance”, which opens up the psychological distance between the play and the audience. The picture on the face makes the audience unable to distinguish the true colors of the actors, and it is very different from the real characters in life, like wearing a mask. It’s easy for the audience to avoid the illusion of appreciation.
Besides, “Dahualian” and “Jundai” appear at the same time, forming a sharp contrast, which highlights the beautiful appearance of Sheng and Dan and the grotesque appearance of jing chu. At the same time, the thick, bright oil color and various patterns of the facial makeup, coupled with the “roaring” rough voice of Jingxing, form a strong artistic stimulation, which can excite, vent and shock the audience.
Facial makeup is not absolutely fixed, but slightly different due to the different repertoire, the age of the characters, and the faces of the actors. Besides, when performing facial makeup, there is another principle, that is, the facial makeup of all the characters present at the same time, especially the tone color, should not be too heavy. For example, in Changbanpo, Eight Generals of Cao Ying will appear at the same time. Except for Zhang Liao, the other seven people should be of the same color. The purpose is to match different colors for beauty, and at the same time to let the audience from a long distance not confuse the role. Jingxing’s facial makeup is the richest and complex. The Peking Opera facial makeup of Chu Bawang is called “Wushuang face”, which is specially used by Chu Bawang. It is said that Chu Bawang was a beautiful man, but because he killed countless people and had a violent temperament, he painted a painted face; and because he was a tragic figure, he drew two large pieces of dark shadows slanting downward in his eyes, which was obviously a face of mourning. The background color of Xiang Yu’s face is big white, which indicates treachery and cruelty. In people’s impression, Xiang Yu is a bloody man, especially farewell my concubine. He fully shows deep feelings and is unforgettable, but his face is only black and white, not red. This situation shows that there are still many problems in facial makeup worth studying.
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