Chinese Religion – Chinese Islam

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Islam first emerged on the Arabian Peninsula by Mecca, Muhammad, in the seventh century AD, and was introduced to China from West Asia and the Middle East in the middle of the seventh century. In China, it was formerly called Da Shi Fa, Da Shi Jiao, Tian Fang Jiao, Muslims, Islam, Islam, and Islam. After more than 1,000 years of dissemination and development in the Song, Yuan, Ming, and Qing Dynasties, it has become one of China’s five major religious beliefs, with about 30 million followers. Islam has different titles in different historical periods in China. It was called “Da Shijiao” in the Song and Yuan Dynasties, “Tianfangjiao” or “Islam” in the Ming Dynasty, “Halal” in the late Ming and Qing Dynasties, and “Islam” in the Republic of China. Since 1956, it has been collectively referred to as Islam. There are 10 ethnic groups, including Hui, Uygur, Kazakh, Dongxiang, Kirgiz, Salar, Tajik, Uzbek, Baoan, and Tatar.
After a long period of dissemination, development, and evolution, an Islamic belief system with national and regional characteristics has been formed. The Tang, Song, and Yuan dynasties were the main periods when Islam spread in China.
According to the national census, the Muslim population in mainland China is about 30 million. Most of the urban and rural areas in all provinces (regions) of the country live in Xinjiang, Ningxia, Gansu, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Henan, Hebei, Yunnan, Shandong, Shanxi, Anhui, Beijing, Tianjin, and other regions. Muslims are also distributed in Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macau, which are characterized by large and small concentrations. Mosques of varying sizes have been built in Muslim communities, forming Muslim communities centered on mosques.

Development path

Incoming period

The vast majority of Chinese Muslims are Sunni and follow the teachings of the Hanafi school. A very small number of Xinjiang are Shiite Ismaili. The various schools of Sufism have extensive influence in the Northwest. Historically, due to the different time and channels of the introduction of Islam into various ethnic regions, as well as the social and historical environment and cultural background of each ethnic group, the spread and development of Islam in China is divided into inland Islam (Chinese language) and Islam in Xinjiang. ( Turkic language family ) Two major families.
The academic circles are still inconclusive when Islam was introduced into mainland China. It is generally believed that Quanzhou and Guangzhou were introduced from Arabia to China in 651 (the second year of Yonghui in the Tang Dynasty). According to Chinese historical records “Old Tang Book” and ” Cefu Yuangui “, this year the third Islamic Caliph Osman (reigned from 644 to 656) sent envoys to Chang’an, the capital of the Tang Dynasty, and met with Tang Gaozong and introduced Islamic teaching The process of unification with Arab countries. For the first time, the Arab Empire officially sent envoys to China, which had a significant impact on the subsequent extensive political, economic, and cultural exchanges between China and Arab countries, as well as the coming of Muslim merchants to the east.
Therefore, historians generally regarded this year as The beginning of the introduction of Islam into China. Besides, there are various theories in Chinese historical materials such as “Sui Kaihuang”, “Tang Wu Dezhong”, “Tang Zhenguan Early Years”, “Early Eighth Century” and other theories. These statements are mostly the words of some scholars or the Ming Dynasty The description of Muslim folklore since the Qing Dynasty is therefore still difficult to conclude.

Tang and Song Dynasty

The 600 years from the second year of Tang Yonghui (651) to the end of the Southern Song Dynasty was the period of the early spread of Islam in China. At this time of the Tang Dynasty and the Arab Empire (big food) are prosperous period, things in the two countries across the east-west overland ” Silk Road ” and the South China Sea to the Persian Gulf sea “Spice Route” of the two countries Maintain frequent and friendly exchanges. Great food envoys and “tribute envoys” kept coming to China.
According to the “Old Tang Book”, from 651 to 798 Arab envoys came to Tang 39 times. Arab and Persian Muslim merchants came to China in an endless stream. After coming to China, most of them concentrated in Guangzhou, Quanzhou, Yangzhou, Hangzhou, Mingzhou (Ningbo) along the southeast coast of China, and went deep into Chang’an and Kaifeng inland. They were engaged in the sale of spices, ivory, jewelry, medicinal materials, and rhino horn. Brought back to China silk, tea, porcelain, and other commodities. The Chinese call them “fan guest”, “fan merchant” and “Hu Jia” etc. Because the Tang and Song governments encouraged commercial trade, many people stayed in China for a long time, calling them “live in Tang”. In the Tang Dynasty, there were many Arabs and Persians who lived abroad or settled in China. According to the records of the third year of Zhenyuan in the ” Zizhi Tongjian “, since the reign of Emperor Xuanzong Tianbao (742~756), the “hu businessmen” of the great food country, “stay for a long time or forty years”, “live in peace and do not want to return.”, “People with fields and houses” “Four thousand people”. Before the first year of Emperor Suzong’s Yuan Dynasty (760), there were at least one to two thousand people living in the area of ​​Yangzhou. According to the Tang Dynasty monk Jianzhen in the ” Tang Da Monk Dongzheng Biography “, the Persian villages that lived on Hainan Island during the Tianbao period “traveled north and south for three days, traveled east and west for five days, and the villages were the same.”
The 9th-century Arab businessman Suleiman’s ” Insights on China and India” also stated that in the late Tang Dynasty, a peasant uprising led by Huang Chao captured Guangzhou, and there were as many as 120,000 Arabs, Persians, Jews, and Christians living here. In the Song Dynasty, the scale of foreign trade and commerce developed again, and the number of Arabs and Persians who came to China increased dramatically compared with that in the Tang Dynasty. They are mostly concentrated in Guangzhou and Quanzhou, and there are tens of thousands in Quanzhou alone. To take care of their living habits, the local authorities in China set up the “Fanfang” area inhabited by fans from various countries and allowed them to marry the Han people and breed offspring. According to the records of Zhu or “Pingzhou Ketan” in the Song Dynasty, there were Arabs surnamed Liu marrying clan daughters in Guangdong at the end of the Northern Song Dynasty, so there were records of “Native Fanke” and “Fifth Generation” Native Franke. The Qing Dynasty scholar Gu Yanwu’s “Tianxia Jun Guoli Disease Book” contains: “Since the Tang Dynasty, he set up a good messenger’ in Guangzhou, and he became a merchant and set up a household since the Song Dynasty, Building stones to connect the city with the eldest offspring.” According to recent research, Guangzhou Fanfang is in the “southern of the city” and “the north bank of the Pearl River”, and Quanzhou is in “the southern suburbs of the city, bordering Jinjiang”. During the Southern Song Dynasty, many big food giants appeared in these two places. They were “rich and prosperous for a while” and had considerable socioeconomic status. Muslim merchants from the food country lived or settled in China and introduced Islam to China. In the “Fan fang”, the Chinese authorities appointed a Muslim of Nian Gao Deshao as the “fan leader”, responsible for managing Fanfang affairs, presiding over religious activities such as worship, handling civil lawsuits among Muslims, and soliciting foreign businessmen to trade in China. The religious beliefs, customs, and ethics of the fans “all act by the Quran, Hadith and Islamic customs”. “Pingzhou Can Talk” also contains: “Fan people’s clothing is different from that of China, and their diet is the same as that of China.” They also established mosques and Muslim public cemeteries where they lived, and the influence of Islam expanded. Now Guangzhou Huaisheng Mosque, Quanzhou Qingjing Si, Yangzhou Crane Temple, Hangzhou really teach temple and so on, are all ancient Islamic temples built during this period. The volume of “Zhu Fan Zhi” records the tomb of Quanzhou, saying: “There is a fan business called Shi Nai, a big cannibal, living in the south of the spring, light wealth and charity, with the customs of the west, making a cluster of graves in the southeast corner of the city. Cover up the remains of Hu Jia.” Tang Dynasty Du Huan’s “Jing Xing Ji” called Islam the “big food law”, and Song Dynasty Zhao Rushi’s (Zhu Fan Zhi” called “big food education”. At this time Islam was still only in China. It is confined to the Arab and Persian merchants who come to live in China, and the majority of Han people are quite unfamiliar with it. Therefore, some Chinese documents often describe religious activities such as Muslim chanting and worship, which are not exactly understood as “Bastian”, “Calling Buddha”, etc…
The Muslims who came to China during the Tang and Song Dynasties maintained their religious beliefs and lifestyle, intermarried with the locals, lived and worked in peace, multiplying children and grandchildren, and evolved from overseas Chinese to “local natives” and became the ancestors of Chinese Muslims. Foreign Muslims engage in legitimate business activities and do not preach to foreigners, avoiding conflicts with traditional Chinese ideas. The Song Dynasty followed this policy, and further relied on the income of Haibo, which provided many convenient conditions for the settlement and commercial activities of “fans”, and made Islam deeply rooted in Chinese soil. Although there were not many Muslims who came to China during the Tang and Song Dynasties, most of them traveled between coastal trade ports and major cities such as Chang’an, Kaifeng, and Beijing to engage in trade activities. They and their descendants get along with the Chinese people in a friendly manner, learn traditional Chinese culture, some even take examinations as officials, and some use their wealth to develop commerce and trade and provide a large amount of fiscal revenue for the court. They are friendly messengers of the exchange between Arab Islamic culture and Chinese culture. Chinese papermaking, alchemy, printing, gunpowder, etc. have been introduced to Arabia successively from this period, and then introduced to the West by Arabs.

Yuan Dynasty to Early Ming Dynasty

This is an important period for the widespread and comprehensive development of Islam in mainland China. In the late Southern Song Dynasty, after the rise of the Mongolian Khanate, Genghis Khan and his successors launched three large-scale western expeditions between 1219 and 1260. In the past half-century, the Mongols successively conquered various countries and nations that believed in Islam in Central Asia and West Asia and destroyed the Abbasid dynasty of the Arab Empire in 1258. During the Mongols’ Western Expeditions, groups of people of all ethnic groups in Central Asia, Persians, and Arabs were conscripted to China as prisoners of war to participate in the Mongolian conquest and unification of China. Among them were issued sergeants, craftsmen, captured women, and children, as well as some religious scholars, the upper echelons of society and their subordinates, and the total number was about hundreds of thousands. The issued sergeants were incorporated into the ” Red Army of Exploring Horses “. They were enlisted in wartimes, gathered and raised in peacetime, and were stationed in various places, mostly in Shaanxi, Gansu, and Qinghai in the northwest, while some moved to the southwest, Jiangnan, and Central Plains. The Mongols’ western expeditions and their occupation of Central Asia, West Asia, and other places opened up the traffic between China and the West. “There is no border here,” and there is an endless stream of businessmen, preachers, travelers, and academics who come to China voluntarily. The Tang and Song Dynasty Chinese residents with big food, descendants of Persians are Muslim, it is called “back and forth” or ” wood pretty fast ” (Muslim, namely Persian Muslim), has become an important ingredient in the Yuan Dynasty Semu. The “History of Mugul” contains: “Menggul’s westward expedition, not time for deep debate, lifts the north and south of the Tianshan Mountains, and the east and west of the green mountains. Those who worship Mahmo (i.e. Muhammad ) believers do not regard Persia, Tochar, Kangju, and Wusun. , Dashi and Turks are all called Huihe, but they can’t speak rightly, and the sound is “Huihui”. The Huihui people from the East after they settled in the Yuan Dynasty, “lived in the middle of the earth, all with the Central Plains as their home”, “no longer look back. The homeland is also”. They still maintain the Islamic faith and culture. They “live in the middle of the earth, eat the middle of the earth, and the only custom is the mud”, “although it is suitable for a particular area, and passed on to the descendants”, their religious beliefs “do not dare to change for many generations.” These people were all over the country. Early Yuan, Marco Polo mentioned many times in his travel notes that there are Muslims in all provinces of China. He said that Yachi (now Kunming) “There are several kinds of people, including Muslims, idolaters, and some Nestorian Christians.” Ibn Battuta, a Moroccan tourist in the future of China, wrote in his travel notes. “Every city in China has an area dedicated to Muslims, and there are large mosques in the area for gathering rituals .” He also described the situation of Xitong (now Quanzhou) and Hangzhou Muslims. At the end of the Song Dynasty and the beginning of the Yuan Dynasty, Zhou Mi said in ” Guixin Miscellaneous Knowledge “: “This time I will call the Central Plains as my home, especially Jiangnan.”
Where Muslims live, there are temples of worship. The scale and number of worship temples in the Yuan Dynasty far exceeded those of the previous generations. According to the inscription of “Reconstruction of the Temple of Worship” in Dingzhou (now Dingzhou City, Hebei Province ) in the eighth year of Yuanzhizheng (1348): “The people of Huihui are all over the world”, “It is close to the capital, but there are many roads outside. To worship the gods.” At this time, most places (now Beijing), Guangzhou, Quanzhou, Yangzhou, Wenzhou, Qingyuan (now Ningbo), Shanghai, Shangdu, Chang’an, and other places were the places where Muslim merchants gathered, worship temples, and Other Islamic buildings are more concentrated. For example, in Quanzhou, six or seven worship temples were built in the Yuan Dynasty. In Helin, there are also two worship temples. Some returning Muslim officials have also built many temples in their own administrative areas. For example, Saidianchi·Gusiding built as many as 12 temples in Kunming. There are still Nancheng Temple on Zhengyi Road and Yongning Temple on Jinbi Road. . In the edicts, edicts, and other documents of the Yuan Dynasty, the temple of worship was called Masjid (Masjid) or Huihui Temple, commonly known as the Huihui Temple, and the Zhangjiao was called “Danisnmara” (Scholar) or Huihui Zhangjiao. , Huihui master; call the Islamic law the “Huihui method”, “the way of returning home”, etc. Since the end of the Yuan Dynasty and the beginning of the Ming Dynasty, Muslims have spread throughout the country, and their religious beliefs and customs have been widely noticed. Therefore, Islam is called “Muslim” or “Muslim” and has been carried forward to modern times.
From the Yuan dynasty to the early Ming dynasty, a considerable number of Han, Mongolian, Uyghur, and other ethnic groups converted to Islam due to political, economic, and intermarriage, and became Muslims. After the Hui people entered China in the Yuan Dynasty, they settled in various places and mixed with the Han people, intermarried with women of the Han people, and all women married to the Hui people converted to Islam. Yuan Dynasty; the Mongols from the ancestors and nobles to their military and civilians gradually merged into the Hui people because they accepted Islam. Ananda, the grandson of Kublai Khan, the ancestor of the Yuan Dynasty, converted to Islam since childhood, and the majority of his officers and soldiers were Muslims So that its jurisdiction (including Shaan, Gansu, Ning, Qing, and other places) Islam has been widely spread and developed. According to the literature of the Ming Dynasty, there were three types of people living together in the Hami area at the beginning of the Ming Dynasty: “One is Huihui, the other is fearful, and the other is Hara Hui”. Hara Hui was originally a Mongol. During the Ming Zhengde period (1506 ~ 1521), they moved to Suzhou (now Jiuquan, Gansu) twice. During the Wanli period (1573 ~ 1620), due to the influence of the Hui nationality, they had no longer eat pork. , And Huihui is the same.”
From the Yuan Dynasty to the early Ming Dynasty, it was also the period when Hui Hui people of various origins formed a nation. After they came to China, they cultivated and raised farms, or worked and did business. On a certain economic basis, Islam played an important role in the social development of the Hui people and the formation of a national community :
(1)Because the Hui people believe in Islam, the common belief strengthens the cohesion, which promotes the formation of a common national psychological state.
(2)The Jiaofang organization formed groups or associations of Huihui Muslims who were in great dispersion. Jiefang is a Muslim community with a worship temple as the center. According to documentary records, in the Yuan Dynasty, the large-scale worship temples had not only the headteachers, but also various faculty members in charge of teaching methods, paging services, and charge of temple affairs. In the Ming Dynasty, the management organization of the worship temple under the Jiaofang system became more perfect. There are imams (imams) and “three palms” in the temple. The emergence and development of the Jiaofang have consolidated religious beliefs organizationally and played a role in uniting the Muslims in the community.
(3)Islam has largely influenced the customs and habits of the Hui people, including marriage, family, funerals, food, festivals, etiquette, and moral behavior, etc., and evolved from the relevant provisions of the Koran. Islam has had a profound impact on the politics, economy, culture, and education of the Hui people, as well as the way of thinking, rational structure, and values.
Also, the ancestors of the Dongxiang, Baoan, and Cellars who lived in Gansu and Qinghai provinces today were Muslims of various ethnic groups who moved in from Central Asia during the Yuan and Ming Dynasties. They entered this area to live together with Han, Tibetan, Mongolian, and other ethnic groups, and their ability to develop independently within the encirclement of Han-Tibetan or Mongolian-Tibetan culture is precisely the important role played by the Islamic faith and culture.
The social status of the Huihui in the Yuan Dynasty is second only to the Mongols. Muslims occupy an important position and influence in military, political, economic, and cultural fields, and some of them are among the rulers. The rulers of the Yuan Dynasty held a tolerant attitude towards Islam, and established a “return to study” for religious and cultural education, and established a “return to Islam” to manage Islamic affairs. Mosques are generally built wherever Muslims go, and temples built by previous generations have also been repaired and rebuilt. Islam has become “Puritanism” and “true religion” that go hand in hand with Buddhism and Taoism. At this time, Arab science and culture were introduced into China through Muslims who came to China. The Yuan government set up institutions such as Huisi Tianjian and Huihui Medicine Institute. Muslim scholars have contributed to the development of Chinese science and culture and cultural exchanges between China and foreign countries in astronomy, calendar, medicine, architecture, military industry, literature, and art. Ming eunuch and Muslim navigator Zheng He were ordered to lead a fleet of seven “sailings”. During the last voyage to the West in 1430, the accompanying Muslims were sent to Mecca for the Hajj, drawing a “Kaaba Map” and strengthening the friendship between the Chinese and Arab people.

Late Ming Dynasty to Early Qing Dynasty

At the turn of the Ming Dynasty and the beginning of the Qing Dynasty, with the social development of the Hui people, the combination of Islamic culture and traditional Chinese culture formed the characteristics of Chinese Islam. During this period, to adapt to the social and economic development of the Hui nationality and to solve the problem of the lack of religious talents, during the Jiajing period of the Ming Dynasty (1522~1566), Hu Dengzhou, a famous scripture teacher in Shaanxi, created the precedent for Jingtang education, first in Shaanxi, then in Shandong, Henan, Hebei, and Shandong. In Yunnan and other places, there has been a sutra education system in which mosque imams recruit students to teach scriptures to cultivate religious talents and popularize religious knowledge. In the course of its development and evolution, local scripture education has formed its own centers and characteristics. In the northwest region, Shaanxi scholars represented by Feng Yangwu and Zhang Shaoshan promoted religious education in monasteries, mostly based on Arabic textbooks, with the characteristics of studying for the subject. Shandong and other provinces in the interior represented by Chang Zhimei, both Arabic and Persian are taught concurrently, and he mainly studies law. Ma Fuchu, the founder of the Yunnan School, has the characteristics of Shaanxi and Shandong. Following the development of sutra education, some famous imams, sutra teachers, and scholars have successively carried out the activities of translating Islamic sutras into Chinese to change the situation of “the doctrine is not clear and the teachings are not taught”. At this time, with Nanjing and Yunnan in the south of the Yangtze River as the center, the Chinese translation and interpretation of Islamic teachings were used to promote Islamic academic culture, so that inside and outside the religion could understand Islam. The previous stage of the translation activity was represented by Wang Daiyu, Liu Zhi, Zhang Zhong, Ma Zhu, and Wu Zuni. The content of the translation was mostly doctrine, teaching method, classic system, history, philosophy, etc. The latter stage is represented by Ma Fuchu, Ma Lianyuan, etc. In addition to the teachings and teaching methods, the content involves Arabic grammar, rhetoric, geography, astronomy, calendar, etc., and the Chinese translation of the “Quran” began. Some scholars also write in Arabic, or both Chinese and Arabic. Most of these Muslim scholars are well versed in Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism, and are known as the “Hui Confucianism” of “the combination of Chinese and Arabic”, “learning through the four religions”, and “the study of Confucianism”. Their translation of “Xi Ben Zun Sutra” refers to many Sufi classics, and most of them use “the combination of Islamic teachings and traditional Chinese culture”.The way of interpreting scriptures with Confucianism has formed the religious and philosophical system of Chinese Islam.
During this period, in Gansu, Ningxia, and Qinghai where Muslims such as Hui, Salar, Dongxiang, Baoan, and other Muslims lived, the introduction of Islamic Sufism led to the formation of of of Sufi “men and eunuch” factions. As early as the end of the Song Dynasty and the beginning of the Yuan Dynasty, the Sufi monks of Islam had missionary activities in the southeast coast of China and some important places in the interior, but they did not form any sects. Since the end of the Ming Dynasty and the beginning of the Qing Dynasty, after the opening of the maritime ban, the traffic between China and the West has been smooth. Some Sufi missionaries from West Asia and Central Asia have come to Northwest China to spread Sufism teachings. There are also Chinese Muslims who have accepted the Soviet Union for hajj to Mecca and study tours to Arab countries. He returned to his country to preach after Philippine thought. Sufism’s preaching about reality and illusion, purifying the soul for the unity of man and lord, and advocating perseverance, asceticism, abstinence, and practice have great appeal to impoverished Muslims.
With the continuous improvement Menhuan founder of the reputation of the increasing number of believers, Menhuan also came into being, has the size to form Menhuan 33, according to their religious claims, mainly Hom Di Line, Zhehelinye, Hu Feiye, and Kubrinye are often called ” Four Gate Eunuchs “. The characteristics of the eunuch are, first of all, respecting the founder of the eunuch, called “old man” and “sheik”, and believers regard them as the leader of the “Way of Allah”. When he was alive, he was revered by the faithful. After his death, he would build a “Gongbei” tomb in his cemetery. The believers went to pay respects and chant scriptures every year on his death day. Secondly, the eunuchs administer many church workshops. To manage the masses of religious people, the hierarch appointed ” Reis ” as an agent to serve as the headmaster of the central mosques of various religious workshops, thus forming an expanded teaching workshop system with layers of affiliation. Third, some eunuch masters practice the hereditary system, “taking the descendants of the founders as their heads for all generations.” A small number of eunuchs advocated the system of passing on meritocracy, but the successors of the leader also came from their relatives.


Around the time of the Five Dynasties and the Northern Song Dynasty, Islam began to spread to Xinjiang from Central Asia. It is different from the mainland in the mode of transmission. According to historical records, in the early 10th century, the Uighurs when a westward Uighurs (now the Uighur ancestors) in the Khan clan Ponte led the ground and living in Central Asia seven Chu River to River Valley (now Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan in some areas ) of Geluolu ancient magma, Oghuz, such as at March Turkic peoples, established in the Western Karakhanid (about 940 to 1211). The Khanate practiced the “double sweat system” common to nomads. The khan was called Arslan (“Lion” in Turkic language) Khan, the resident Balasagon (tokamak in Kyrgyzstan), and the deputy Khan called Bugle (ie male camel) Khan, the station early in Talas (now Kazakhstan Dzhambul ), later moved to Kashgar Kashgar (now Xinjiang Kashi ). According to the 14th-century Uyghur historian Gemal Karsi’s Supplement to the Surah Dictionary, in the first half of the 10th century, the first Great Khan of the dynasty, the grandson of Vigach Kadir Khan, was based in Kashgar. Datuk Bugle Khan, sheltered in Atushi, north of KashgarUnder under the influence of Abu Nasr Samani, a member of the Central Asian Saman Dynasty (874~996), he first accepted the Islamic faith. After fighting with his uncle Augustus Lechak and winning, the Khanate The East Branch took the lead to convert to Islam, the precedent of the Islamization of the Karahan Dynasty. In 955, after Musa Abdul Kerim became Khan, he designated Islam as the state religion and promoted Islam to the area of ​​the Great Khan in the struggle for the throne.
The 11th-century Arab historian Ibn Miskewe and the 12th-century historian Ibn al-Asir mentioned in “The Complete History ” that in 960, 200,000 Turkic nomads converted to Islam. In the early 11th century, Musa Hassan Bugera Khan’s son and grandson Yusuf Qadeer Khan, are at the center of Kashgar, continues to expand its influence to the northeast and southeast of Xinjiang, the British occupied Jisha, Boyer After Qiang and other places, Yusuf launched a war against the Buddhist region of Khotan (now Hotan). After 20 years of war, the Khotan Li dynasty was destroyed, and the territory was expanded to the east of the city of Yuecheng (in Ruoqiang County, Xinjiang ), which made Khotan’s ancient Buddhist powerhouse gradually Islamic. In the middle of the 12th century, the Karahan dynasty, which straddled Congling from east to west, was occupied by Khitans from the east, including present-day Xinjiang. At this time, people with different religious beliefs were still under the unified jurisdiction of the Xiao (1132~1218) regime. West falcon upper Liao people believe in Buddhism, but other religions are not strictly excluded (usurpation of West Liao regime Naiman Kuchlug taken except hostility), and therefore Islam during this period are still being developed. According to ” Journey to the West by a True Man in Changchun “, before the establishment of the Yuan Dynasty, Islam and Buddhism were bounded by Changpala (now Jimsar ) in Xinjiang, with Buddhist forces in the east, Kashgar as the center in the west, and Kashgar as the center in the north. The areas along the northern edge of the Tarim Basin to Aksu and Kuqa, and the south road from Shache, Yecheng, Hotan to Qiemo are all areas of Islamic influence. Fixing”The History of World Conquerors ” stated that in the 13th century, when the last monarchs of the Western Liao Dynasty forced Muslims to abandon their belief in Islam, the imam of Hotan argued with him on the grounds, showing that Islam has a solid foundation in this area. Liao Dynasty, the Ili River Valley Almaliq areas there was the little kingdom of Islam, this is the first time Islam spread to the nomadic area north of the Tianshan Mountains.
The “History of the Conquerors of the World” also reported that there were still people in the Alimali area who believed in Islam Sufis. In the late Yuan Dynasty, Islam continued to develop in the eastern Chagatai Khanate of Mongolia, which occupied Xinjiang and the Hezhong region of Central Asia. Islam spread to the north and south of the Tianshan Mountains. According to records in the 16th century Mirza Muhammad Haidar’s “History of La Shide” and other books, Tu Hei Lu Timur (reigned from 1347 to 1363) was before and after the throne of Khan, when Sheikh Dhamaluddin and his son Ah Under the persuasion and influence of Oshaduddin, the initiation ceremony was presided over by the great Mullah Matt, who became the first Mongolian Queen Chagatai to believe in Islam in Xinjiang. Later, he sent imams to various places in Yijiao. His subordinates, from the princes, nobles to farmers and herdsmen, about 160,000 Mongolians “cut off their long hair and converted to Islam.” Ming Hongwu sixteen years (1383), black children, and Zhuo Khan said after personally to the eastern states and rancid fire Turpan war and other Buddhist regions, to take tough measures “to force the local population to convert.” Since then, these two places have been called “Dar Islam” (i.e. Islamicized areas). Before and after the throne of Hei’er and Zhuozhihan, Xinjiang was split into many separatist regimes, and the ruler is still the descendant of the Chagatai Mongolian nobles. To fight for power, Mahama Khan of Bali continued to promote Islam among the Mongols after Hei’s son and Zhuo. During his rule, all Chagatai Mongols in Xinjiang converted to Islam.
From the 15th to the 16th century, Islam developed rapidly in Xinjiang. Not only did the number of believers increase and the region expanded, but it also became the main ideology of all ethnic groups. Islam occupies an advantage in the Turpan and Hami areas of Xinjiang and has become the unified religion of Uyghurs in different regions, which has a profound impact on its language, customs, moral standards, and psychological quality. After the Chagatai Mongolians believed in Islam, they intermarried with Uyghurs and gradually settled down, and gradually merged with the local Uyghurs. In the Kazakh nomadic society of the Ili River Valley in northern Xinjiang and the grasslands of Central Asia, Islam has gradually occupied a dominant position. An Ottoman Turk, Sai Fei, wrote in 1582 that the Kazakhs are followers of the Hanafi School of Law of Islam. In the “Seven Codes” enacted during the Kazakh Khanate Toukhan period (1680-1718), the Islamic Sharia law became the basis of legislation, stipulating that “whoever insults Allah shall be sentenced to death by seven persons who have proved true.” Christians must confiscate all their property” and so on. The spread and development of Islam in Xinjiang has the following characteristics:
(1)All dynasties have implemented the unified administration and religion system and implemented Islamic law. The upper-class religious figures such as Sheikh, Mullah, and Kadi enjoy high social status. The monarchs of the Karahan Dynasty and Queen Chagatai respect them as teachers and religious advisers. With the support of the rulers, religious leaders have great powers. For example, in the late 14th century, Sheikh Dhamaruddin and his sons Arsha and Dudin, who persuaded Baldheru Timur to become a religion, preached in the north and south of the Tianshan Mountains. Later, the family was granted the hereditary privileges of the Islamic “Kazi” (that is, the religious judge) in Kuqa, Aksu, and Ushi, until the time of Bieshi Bali and Yili Bari regimes. The religious upper class rebuilt the tombs of martyrs who had spread Islam since the Karakhan Dynasty. They called them “Maza” and were regarded as “Holy Land” by believers. The queens of Chagatai in all dynasties gave a large amount of land and other teaching properties as the religious public property of “Maza”. At the same time, the mosque was also given a large number of “Wakf” estates.
(2)Since the beginning of the 17th century, the famous Sufis of Central Asia, Hezhuo Mehdum, the heir of Azam, has come to Xinjiang to preach. They rely on He Zhuo’s special status to rule the Yarkand Khanate in southern Xinjiang. With the support of the People’s Republic of China, the disciples were widely collected and wealth amassed, forming a powerful religious and political force. To compete for religious leadership, the Hezhuo family was divided into two different religious sects from the beginning, namely the Black Mountain Sect of the Ishag family and the Baishan Sect of the Ichan Karang family. The two factions vie for the sphere of influence and oppose each other. The Baishan faction and Zhuo who lost in the struggle used the military conquest of the Junggar nobles in northern Xinjiang to eradicate dissidents, overthrew the rule of the Yarkand Khanate, and established the “Holy Islamic State” attached to the Junggar Khanate in southern Xinjiang. It was not until the Qing Dynasty put down the rebellion of the Junggar nobles in the middle of the 18th century and regained Xinjiang that the power of the Hezhuo family fell apart.
(3)At the same time as the development of the Hezhuo forces, the Sufi mysticism of Islam has been further spread and developed. Combining it with the original religious influence and traditional culture of Xinjiang Turkic language ethnic groups, many Sufi mysticism Yichan schools have been produced. Which have a greater impact on Nagesh classes Rachidia, tigers non yeah, Hom Di Line, Czech Republic Breuil, Guanches Tiye, Suha La Wadi Lord Wood Slat Jesus, and other factions. The emergence and development of these Yichan sects promoted the development of the worship of saints, the holy tomb (namely Mazha pilgrimage), and the large-scale Mazha architecture, forming a major feature of the Islamic etiquette system in Xinjiang.

The middle and late Qing Dynasty and the Republic of China

(1) The “Ganzhou Uprising” led by Mi Layin and Ding Guodong in the fifth year of Shunzhi in the Qing Dynasty (1648) opposed the “Head Shaving Order” under the regent of the Qing Dynasty, Dorgon, and the 46th year (1781) and 49th year (1784) of the Qianlong period. 43. The continuation and development of Tian Wu’s anti-Qing uprising. From 1856 to 1874, Yunnan Hui Muslims led by Du Wenxiu proposed the “Xinghan”, “Choosing Man” and “Chuan” uprisings. The Shaanxi-Gansu Revolution from 1862 to 1877 and the armed struggle between Urumqi, Ili, and Hami in Urumqi, Ili, and Hami between 1864 and 1866 between Kuqa and Uyghur Muslims united with the Muslims and took the longest time. Most of these uprisings used Islam as the ideological banner and link of struggle. Jiefang was the most basic organizational form of the insurgents. Some were led by Axun or the head of the eunuch, and the worship time was the stronghold of the uprising team. These uprisings and struggles dealt a heavy blow to the national oppression of the Qing Dynasty, and they were part of the anti-imperialist and anti-feudal struggles of the people of all ethnic groups in modern China. However, the uprisings were brutally suppressed by the Qing rulers, resulting in a sharp decline in the population. Large numbers of Muslims were sent to the frontiers or migrated to remote areas in poor mountains and remote areas. Their residences became more and more scattered, and their living and social environments were more difficult. Chinese Muslims suffered difficulty.
(2) Since the end of the Qing Dynasty and the beginning of the Republic of China, under the influence of the modern Chinese national bourgeoisie’s “education to save the country” and “science and technology to save the country” trend, a group of Muslim scholars and scribes such as Wang Kuan and Abdul Kadir have advocated reforming religion Education, the implementation of the “two exchanges of scriptures and books”, and the establishment of new schools have promoted the transformation of Chinese Muslim monastery education into modern education. In the early days of the new-style school, there was the Muslim two-level primary school of the Niujie Mosque in Beijing and the Palindrome Normal School (1908), Beiping Chengda Normal School (1925), Shanghai Islamic Normal School (1927), Sichuan Wanxian Islamic Normal School (1928), Yunnan Mingde Middle School (1929) and Hangzhou Muxing Middle School, etc.
Since the 1930s, in places where Hui Muslims are more distributed throughout the country, there have been 400 to 500 general primary schools of various types, and there are also 20 to 30 general middle schools and normal colleges. At the same time, in the old-style sutra education, the curriculum is gradually changing, and courses such as Chinese and general knowledge are generally added. In the Xinjiang region, sutra education has evolved from a small and scattered private school to a specialized religious school (Madelesai). In terms of teaching form, teaching content, and management methods, it has the ethnic characteristics of the region. At the same time, students were sent to study in Islamic countries such as Al-Azhar University in Egypt and Turkey. To develop Islamic education and culture, religious education and cultural organizations of Chinese Muslims have been established one after another. The earliest late Qing Zhenjiang Tong Cong initiated the establishment of the “East Asian Federation of Islamic education” and the organization of Muslim students studying in Japan, ” left East Muslim Educational Association .”
In 1912, Wang Kuan and Ma Linyi initiated the ” China Islamic Progress Association ” in Beijing. Its branches spread across many provinces and counties across the country. Since then, various Islamic social organizations and academic and cultural institutions have increased day by day, and academic activities have been extensively carried out. To adapt to the development of modern society and revitalize the nation and Islamic culture, many Muslim intellectuals have also Many publications have been created in various places, and the Chinese and Uyghur translations of the “Quran” and other classics have been published successively, selected translations and full translations, thus forming a new upsurge in the academic and cultural research of China’s Islamic culture since the late Ming and early Qing. A group of scholars and scriptures with exquisite knowledge in the study of the Quran, Hadith, Jurisprudence, and Islamic philosophy have emerged. Among them are Wang Kuan, Wang Jingzhai, Da Pushing, Ha Decheng, Ma Songting, Yang Zhongming, Hu Songshan, Yangmengyuan, Joshua, Pangshi Qian, Ma Jian, Shemusiding, Thai sword stand · Edward said cloth and other more well-known, their spread and development of Chinese modern Islamic culture have made important contributions.
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